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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... This article provides a brief review of the terms and basic concepts associated with crystal structures. It also discusses some of the significant defects obstructing plastic flow in real crystals, namely point defects, line defects, stacking faults, twins, and cold work. Several tables in the article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... eutectics solidification terminal solid solutions If the two-phase field in the solid region of Fig. 1 is expanded so that it touches the solidus at some point, as shown in Fig. 2(a) , complete miscibility of the components is lost. Instead of a single solid phase, the diagram now shows two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enter the detector and strike a single crystal of known material that has been selected on the basis of its atomic structure and lattice spacing. The angle of the incoming x-rays that are incident upon the crystal is changed in a serial manner, and as the crystal sweeps through the entire range, x-rays...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... tabulates the assorted structure types of metallurgical interest arranged according to Pearson symbol. It also provides information on crystal defects in all real crystals, explaining some significant ones, such as point defects, line defects, stacking faults, and twins. atom position crystal defects...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the number of components, and p is the number of stable phases in the system. According to the phase rule, three phases can exist in stable equilibrium only at a single point on a unary diagram ( f = 1 − 3 + 2 = 0). This limitation is illustrated as point 0 in the hypothetical unary...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... processes such as die casting and permanent mold casting. The article reviews the pattern features and mold production considerations used in pattern design, namely, parting line considerations, addition of gates and risers, core prints, and locating points. It discusses the pattern allowances for ensuring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... the following way: programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have been used to handle material movement; analog variables (energy, temperature, pressure, flow, vacuum, percent carbon, and so on) have been controlled by single-loop controllers and set-point programmers; and process supervision or data...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... points. bubble damage casting reliable castings convection damage liquid front damage residual stress segregation shrinkage damage good-quality melt liquid front stop core blows location points AS OUR UNDERSTANDING of the casting process is improved and refined, guidelines for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.../mm (0.015 in./in.) crown to hide undulations caused by uneven buffing. Sharply angled edge. Undesirable. Reduced thickness of plate at center areas. Requires increased plating time for depositing minimum thickness of durable plate. All edges should be rounded. Edges that contact painted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... draft height ( Fig. 7 ). Using inch-pound (non-metric) units of measure, draft allowance is expressed in decimals of an inch, measured in a direction normal to the ram direction and from points of straightline intersection. Linear equivalents for five common draft angles and for draft heights ranging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of atoms and the details of symmetry require interpretation of the intensities of the diffracted beams. The former is the geometry of the unit cell; the latter, the crystal structure. Reference 1 covers the topic extensively. A lattice is the arrangement of single geometric points defining the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... knowledge of microstructural morphology, elemental chemistry, and atom or molecule placement in the structure. While no single experimental technique provides all of this information, a combination of techniques provides insight into a material structure and hence into its corrosion and oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... beam. Angle-beam search units can be used to produce shear waves or combined shear and longitudinal waves, depending on the wedge angle and testpiece material. There is a single value of wedge angle that will produce the desired beam direction and wave type in any given type of material testpiece. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., which contains the incident and diffracted x-ray beams. To measure the stress in different directions at the same point, the sample is rotated through an angle ϕ about its surface normal to align the direction of interest with the diffraction plane. Because only the elastic strain changes the mean...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... orientation of a single crystal sample of known crystal structure. Referring to Fig. 2 , it can be seen that for a stationary single crystal sample in which d -spacings and diffraction angles are fixed, the right hand side of Bragg's law has a single completely defined value for each type of plane. If an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... time point, and to provide coordination for the entire system In many cases the pulser, receiver, display, and clock are a single integrated unit that may be digital or interfaced to an external computer. Traditionally, many ultrasonic inspections used single transducers in a pulse-echo mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... expended mechanical energy being stored within the specimen. Grains are deformed and move relative to one another. The effects of the stored energy are present as point defects, dislocations, and stacking faults. Dislocations—flaws in the linear array of atoms—are generated and become rearranged due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... improve the hole quality, but not at the expense of productivity. A highly successful drill is the indexable drill, or endrill, where two indexable carbide inserts are used. The two inserts are positioned so as to get a negative ( Fig. 6a ) or a hybrid negative-positive ( Fig. 6b ) point angle. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... contain one lattice point per mesh; nonprimitive contain more than one lattice point per mesh. Figure 2(a) shows the five two-dimensional Bravais nets. The unit mesh vectors are conventionally defined, as shown, with the angle between the unit vectors ≥90°, a denoting the shorter unit vector, and b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... number of electrons reaching the detector). Consider the SE signal shown in Fig. 9(a) . When the beam is at positions 2 and 4, the number of SEs emitted from the surface is roughly the same, because the beam/surface tilt angle is the same. However, because point 4 faces the detector and 2 does not...