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single crystal orientations

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... stress-based approach of the Bishop and Hill procedure to directly find stress states that could simultaneously operate at least five independent slip systems. It presents ways to find isostress or lower-bound yield loci for sheets having single-crystal orientation. plasticity Schmid's law...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloying and temperature effects; measurement of residual stresses; characterization of crystallite size and perfection; characterization of preferred orientations; and determination of single crystal orientations. alloying effects bulk structural analysis lattice parameters metals residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the concepts of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD). It begins with a historical review of XRD methods, followed by a description of the various factors involved in crystal symmetry. The article then focuses on the phase problem in x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... crystal symmetries. The orientations of crystal axes are shown for several orientations lying along one line through the fundamental region in Fig. 2(b) . One can see that these orientations are different only by rotation about a single axis and that the end points are symmetrically equivalent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... performance. Each microstructure has its own energy level and hence its own corrosion or oxidation rate. This fact is exploited not only in “real world applications” but during the etching phase of metallographic preparation where different crystal structures, different crystal orientations, and different...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... right side, where the displacement is parallel to the dislocation, is called a screw dislocation. In this part, the crystal no longer is made of parallel planes of atoms, but instead consists of a single plane in the form of a helical ramp (screw). As the slipped region spreads across the slip...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... of atomic arrangement. A crystal consists of unit cells stacked tightly together, each identical in size, shape, and orientation with all others. The choice of the boundaries of a unit cell is somewhat arbitrary, being conditioned by symmetry considerations and by convenience. Crystallography uses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article summarizes a physical model of an interface structure and shows how the model helps in optimizing atomistic modeling studies. It presents the orientation relationship of the interface structure to define the mutual crystallographic position of adjacent crystals. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is, a collection of crystals grouped in a solid phase. Each crystal exhibits a specific orientation by reference to an external reference system, and the distribution of these orientations is called texture. During metal forming, permanent deformation is imparted into a workpiece. This deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... considering the macroscopic properties of a polycrystalline metal or alloy, the texture ( Ref 1 ), that is, the crystal orientation distribution, is the primary contributor to elastic and plastic anisotropy arising from the anisotropy of single crystals. Of course, the grain morphology and microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article illustrates the three techniques for producing glassy metals, namely, liquid phase quenching, atomic or molecular deposition, and external action technique. Devitrification of an amorphous alloy can proceed by several routes, including primary crystallization, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... pattern Powder Identification of compound Identification of cell parameters Single crystal Matching of d-I set with database Powder Orientation studies Orientation of the crystal with respect to the mount Single crystal Orientation of the crystallites in the specimen (texture analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... BOR, that is, {0001} α || {101} β and ⟨11 2 0⟩ α || ⟨111⟩ β . Orientation relationships describe the relative orientation between two crystals as specified by pairs of parallel planes and directions. The BOR implies the parallelism of vectors ⟨1100⟩ α || ⟨121⟩ β in the {0001} α || {101} β...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... placing a single-crystal seed in contact with the liquid surface. At the interface of the colder solid in contact with the molten liquid, epitaxial solidification occurs, and the growing crystal is slowly drawn away from the liquid surface where additional solidification occurs. The orientation of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... operates in pulsed mode) and approximately constant flux of neutrons, moderated to thermal and epithermal energies. A conventional arrangement for diffraction is to monochromatize the neutron beam by placing an appropriately oriented, large single crystal, called a monochromator, placed in the full beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... success of serial femtosecond crystallography at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beamlines ( Ref 47 ). Serial millisecond crystallography uses a high-viscosity medium to carry microcrystals, so that the crystals can retain their orientations during collection of a single diffraction image, which takes a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article provides crystallographic and engineering data for single oxide ceramics, zirconia, silicates, mullite, spinels, perovskites, borides, carbides, silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon-nitride ceramics, diamond, and graphite. It includes data on crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... normalization. This background is collected by scanning the electron beam over many differently oriented grains in a polycrystalline sample. If the grain size is large or the sample is a single crystal, the dynamic background may be the best choice. This background image is then used to normalize the raw EBSD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... orientation using beta treatment. It lists the typical mechanical properties of DU as functions of the amount of cold work and hardness data of uranium rod, and describes the annealing of cold-worked DU. The article also describes the heat treatment of dilute alloys of DU, focusing on the three basic furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... oriented crystal or the misorientation between two adjacent crystals can also be represented as a single rotation about a specific axis. For the case of the misorientation between two adjacent crystals 1 and 2, for example, a misorientation matrix Q 12 is calculated first: (Eq 3) Q 12 = g...