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silicon drift detector

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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 7 Principle of the semiconductor silicon drift detector energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS) with the spectrum of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -0.4wt%Al More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Schematic of a silicon-drift detector (SDD) system. EDS, energy-dispersive spectrometer More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... basic systems are discussed briefly: the silicon-lithium detector and the silicon-drift detector. Silicon-Lithium Detector Until recent years, the lithium-drifted silicon or Si-Li (i.e., “silly”) energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) has been the workhorse in x-ray spectroscopy because of its low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... electrode. The quantity of electrons collected at the positively charged electrode constitutes a charge that is proportional to the energy of the photon. Fig. 7 Principle of the semiconductor silicon drift detector energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS) with the spectrum of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... used to identify rutile TiO 2 . Significant peak positions are noted by d-spacing calculation of the 2θ position. Courtesy of P. Howard, NASA Advances in Chemical Analysis Methods for Failure Analysis Advancements in silicon drift detector technology allow for real-time or near-real-time x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with a curved position-sensitive (CPS) detector or image plate area detector. These modern systems employ digital detectors with capabilities spanning 0-D (scintillation counter), 1-D (silicon strip and CPS), and 2-D (area detectors), with the latter two being the most prevalent. Micro x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... difference between the two electron states ( Fig. 4 ). The x-ray energy is characteristic of the element from which it was emitted. The EDS x-ray detector measures the relative abundance of emitted x-rays versus their energy. The traditional EDS detector is a lithium-drifted silicon, solid-state device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... resolution. These characteristics have made LIBS an outstanding technique for applications involving inline analysis of materials in various industrial processes. Another general trend for all OES techniques is that the photomultiplier tubes are gradually being replaced by solid-state detectors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... diagram of the detector of an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. The detector consists of a crystal of silicon that is biased by means of electrodes placed on the front and rear surfaces. The photoelectron scattering in the silicon creates free electron-hole pairs in the band structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., typically below the electron-optics column. Electromagnetic lenses below the electron gun focus the electron beam to a small probe at the sample surface. Scanning coils deflect the electron probe across the sample surface, and detectors housed either in the specimen chamber or in the electron-optics column...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chamber, the amount of kinetic energy and the velocity ( v ) of an ion with mass ( m ) are given by: (Eq 1) K = Uz and (Eq 2) v = 2 Uz m The time ( t ) it takes for an ion to travel the length of the drift region ( L ) and reach the detector is given by: (Eq 3) t = L...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Ions backscattered from the sample are detected and analyzed using a solid-state detector. A silicon surface barrier detector approximately 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter is commonly used to collect the particles backscattered into a small solid angle at a fixed backscattering angle. This detector...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the basic principles of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), covering different instruments used for performing ICP-MS analysis. The instruments covered include the sample-introduction system, ICP ion source, mass analyzer, and ion detector...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... As these energies are measured, a histogram of the numbers of photons counted corresponding to each energy is plotted. The detector in an EDS system is a lithium-doped silicon semiconductor. X-ray photons enter the semiconductor detector crystal, where numerous electron-hole pairs are created as photons expend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... control systems, including contact sensors, noncontact sensors, controllers, energy-flow regulators, measurement instruments, and set-point programmers. Common contact sensors include temperature scales, thermocouples, and resistance temperature detectors, whereas optical pyrometers and on-line radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... if adequate resolution could be achieved. The development of lithium-drifted silicon detectors and their application to x-ray detection in the mid-1960s led to a field of spectroscopic analysis that became known as energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). Because of the tradition of the term x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... backscattered from the sample are detected and analyzed using a solid-state detector. A silicon surface barrier detector approximately 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter commonly is used to collect the particles backscattered into a small solid angle at a fixed backscattering angle. This detector—in combination...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the emitted x-ray beam is analyzed electronically, photon by photon ( Fig. 5 ). The x-ray beam is directly into a semiconductor device (a lithium-drifted silicon crystal). As each x-ray photon enters the detector crystal, it creates numerous electron-hole pairs as it expends its energy interacting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and larger, depending on the wavelength and temperature. The other type of detector typically used in high-temperature IR thermometers is called a photon detector. These devices are made of materials such as silicon, lead sulfide, and germanium just to mention a few...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with a mass analyzer and a detector(s). Ion Source At present, there are two fundamental types of ion sources used for the GDMS: the low-pressure or static source, and the fast-flow sources. Both types can accept pin samples or samples with a flat surface ( Ref 9 ). Typical pin samples have a length...