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signal-to-noise ratio

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... arise within a ferromagnetic material subjected to an applied varying magnetic field. Measurement and analysis of induced signals are used to infer the condition and properties of the material. Such methods include magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) and magnetoacoustic emission (MAE). These techniques are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio for low intensity signals, thereby lowering some detection limits by several orders of magnitude. Utilizing gated pulse detecting electronics one can even perform discrete ion counting using such detectors. Disadvantages include potential amplification changes due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... gas (normally argon) and thereby matrix independent that the ratio method can have a detrimental effect on the accuracy of trace elements. This is because the nearly constant background signal then undergoes shifts in the ratio calculation due to variations in the signal from the matrix element. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., and a uniform fine grain (UFG) Ti-6242 forging. (a) Backscattered noise. (b) The signal from holes, indicating higher signal-to-noise ratios for both the RF and UFG materials The signals from the flat bottom holes are shown in Fig. 14(b) . The C-scan data were gated to a depth of ∼25 mm (1 in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... method due to the much greater signal-to-noise ratio at lower x-ray energy values. Figure 12 shows the results of WDS analysis on a metallographically prepared section of a bolt with excessive phosphorus concentration in the near-surface material. Diffusion of excessive phosphorus into the steel during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... signal-to-noise ratio. Probe selection for a given inspection application should take into consideration the objectives of the inspection and the materials characteristics. Modifying the probe characteristics will result in numerous effects. The advantages are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.9781627081757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... electrical contactors for heating elements or high-low fire systems for combustion burners. Others are proportional, utilizing stoichiometric gas-air ratios for burners or variable current systems for heating elements. Each of these systems has the effect of delivering a certain amount of energy to achieve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspection of highly attenuative materials. Noncontact scanning capability (air-coupled ultrasonic testing) Transducers are expensive; poor signal-to-noise ratio in certain applications 16 – 18 Electromagnetic acoustic transducer Line/cylindrical/other, depending on design Noncontact scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sequentially. The spatial distance separating the individual wavelengths after dispersion and the mechanical slit width determine spectral resolution and optical throughput. For a given instrument, the higher the spectral resolution, the lower the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum. Figure 1 shows a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... attenuation, although the net result is the same because the signal-to-noise ratio also usually decreases with frequency. This is shown in Fig. 3 . This means that the two requirements of high penetration and high resolution are mutually exclusive. For example, a specimen having high attenuation, such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... different gray-scale level ( Ref 44 ). Although this is not the general condition under which radiographs are viewed, this is the criterion currently incorporated into the model. Further modification involves a mechanism to account for degradation of the contrast due to a poor signal-to-noise ratio. One of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ( Ref 5 , 28 ). It is quite likely that there are many situations, such as generating guided and surface waves under industrial conditions, where the signal-to-noise ratio that can be achieved in an EMAT-based UNDE system could exceed that achievable using other approaches. Numerous methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are low. However, if the signal-to-noise ratio is good, the low count rate may not be a problem. One area of concern when collecting μXRD data is sample fluorescence. The configuration of a microdiffractometer does not permit a diffracted beam monochromator, allowing sample fluorescence to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... used in water tanks to improve the signal-to-noise ratio over the grain-boundary scattering noise. This method proved to be a better approach compared to conventional immersion techniques, but technical difficulties were found with the probe positioning and alignment when a short pulse is used. An...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 120 s) are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Contrast and brightness are modulated by the operator of the scanning electron microscope. A good micrograph exhibits a range of gray levels; as the number of gray levels increases, so does the information content of the micrograph. The operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... imperfect equipment (e.g., interelement variability in an array) is minimized. For example, if there is additive noise on every contributing signal, u ij ( t ), then the worst-case scenario if the noise is identical on all signals is that the same level of random noise will be added to the image. (In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... tuned to the second-harmonic frequency. The signal is first transferred to a digital oscilloscope and then to a computer for postprocessing. Signal averaging is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured time domain signal. The steady-state portion of the time domain signal is extracted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-repetition rate) and gain should be adjusted to achieve the maximum response of the transducer (resonance in the vibrating element) and maximum signal-to-noise ratio (lowest level of electronic noise) in the receiver preamplifier. The received signals then are digitized using a high-dynamic-range digitizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... be used. In cases with particularly dense or thick workpieces or scattering problems, linear detectors still remain the most suitable. Indeed, LDAs provide better signal-to-noise ratio and resist higher x-ray energy. In either case, the x-ray source is collimated to form a cone (or fan) beam that...