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signal-generation mechanisms

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... configuration and selective excitation configuration of the signal-generation mechanisms in thermal nondestructive evaluation methods. The three widely used approaches to TNDE are surface-excited thermography, vibrothermography, and thermoelastic stress analysis. The article provides information on the common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of phase-array by numerical processing of an array of previously acquired laser-ultrasonic signals. The article describes the ultrasound generation by thermoelastic mechanism and ablation or vaporization. It illustrates the principle of optical detection of ultrasound with confocal Fabry-Perot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... applications of vibroacoustic analysis. vibroacoustic analysis monitoring tool statistical analysis data distribution time-frequency domain short-time Fourier transform signal processing VIBROACOUSTIC ANALYSIS of mechanical systems has an important role in the engineering discipline. This can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...). It is not necessary to ask: “What frequency should I have to use to detect a particular mechanism?” The source pulse carries energy the whole spectrum, from zero to some upper limit. Preamplifier Response and Frequency Filtering Signals generated by the sensor are amplified to provide a higher, more usable...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Acoustic-emission inspection detects and analyzes minute acoustic-emission signals generated by discontinuities in materials under applied stress. This article discusses the types of acoustic emissions (continuous-type emissions and burst-type emissions) and applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... a small decrease in temperature. From a practical standpoint, TSA entails correlating a representative signal (e.g., load or displacement) from a mechanical test (either fatigue or impulse loading) to the output of a sensitive IR detector in order to extract the temperature change due to the thermoelastic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... composition. A Hall effect probe is used to measure magnetic field strength parallel to the surface of a part. A signal generator provides a low-frequency magnetizing field, typically of the order of a few Hertz, and the output of the flux measuring coil is integrated over time to give the flux density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the heat removal stages involved in quenching, and on the experimental setup used for measuring temperature and detecting sound signals with the help of illustrations and curves. The quenching process generates acoustic signals, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... material. The sizing is carried out automatically, using the times of arrival of the generated signals as much for the discontinuities as for the surface limits of the component. To obtain high-quality B-scan digital images, it is very important during the calibration to consider all essential variables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to applications where PETs require delay lines or phase-matching wedges ( Ref 5 , 28 ). It is quite likely that there are many situations, such as generating guided and surface waves under industrial conditions, where the signal-to-noise ratio that can be achieved in an EMAT-based UNDE system could exceed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... direction Secondary ∼5 eV Loosely bound electrons scattered from surface Main signal for image formation in SEM Fig. 19 Secondary or Auger electron signal generation. (a) Estimated intensity distribution of emitted secondary or Auger electrons about the centerline of a 20-keV electron beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... manufacturing processes. Basic Concepts of Control Systems A signal is defined as a representation (typically mechanical or electrical) of a physical condition, and a system is a physical entity with input and output signals. Control systems are used to drive the output signals of the system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to primary beam diameter at specimen surface, d s , for both SE(1) and SE(2) signals Fig. 26 Generation of Auger electron and x-ray photon by inner shell ionization of an atom and subsequent electron transitions Fig. 29 Illustration of (a) secondary electron (SE) and (b) backscattered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with a small defect. (c) Transducer on a plate containing a large defect. Adapted from Ref 2 The transmission method, using two transducers, can be implemented in either reflection (pitch-catch) or through-transmission, as shown in Fig. 2 . Generally, these methods involve only measurement of signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... damage and predicting remaining service life of critical components. Fundamentals Nonlinear distortion is a generic term used in numerous fields of science and engineering to describe phenomena of harmonics generation caused by a nonlinear relationship between a harmonic sinusoidal input signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... testing, quasi-static mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical tests, and metallographic examination, are reviewed. The article reviews weld-quality monitoring using various process signals and provides a discussion on the on-line and off-line nondestructive evaluation methods of spot weld quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... applied to the raw ultrasonic signal is increased as a function of time to compensate for the natural attenuation of the composite. Thus, defects near the back wall of the composite are brought up to the same amplitude as a near-surface defect. Newer-generation systems allow the operator to tailor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... signals extracted are basically the same as those obtained with conventional systems and can be analyzed using similar methods. Finally, the two laser beams are indexed over the composite surface with an optical scanner to produce standard C-scan images. Laser Generation The detailed mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... mixed systems. The primary initial use of simulation is to help the designer confirm that the design performs its intended function, however completely that is defined. Once the design is frozen, simulation can generate expected results files for test systems. A very wide range of input signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0