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signal detection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the development of SEM technology and operating principles of basic systems of SEM. The basic systems covered include the electron optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and the vacuum system. The processes involved in the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM are described...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... column, signal detection and display equipment, and vacuum system. It discusses the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM and describes the application of SEM in fractography. If the surface remains unaffected and undamaged by events subsequent to the actual failure, it is often a simple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article focuses on the heat removal stages involved in quenching, and on the experimental setup used for measuring temperature and detecting sound signals with the help of illustrations and curves. The quenching process generates acoustic signals, which are the consequences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-array by numerical processing of an array of previously acquired laser-ultrasonic signals. The article describes the ultrasound generation by thermoelastic mechanism and ablation or vaporization. It illustrates the principle of optical detection of ultrasound with confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... evaluation (NDE). The article concludes with information on ground-penetration radar (GPR) that uses electromagnetic radiation and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. absorption spectroscopy composite structures dielectric materials electromagnetic radiation electromagnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of this element is doubtful due to attenuation of the x-ray signal by air. Nevertheless, in ideal conditions, qualitative detection of most of the industrially significant elements is possible down to the parts-per-million level ( Fig. 7 ). The need by industry for a quick and easy method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specimen. This article discusses fundamentals of the technique, especially for solving materials problems. Background information is provided to help understand basic operations and principles, including instrumentation, the physics of signal generation and detection, image formation, electron diffraction...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Acoustic-emission inspection detects and analyzes minute acoustic-emission signals generated by discontinuities in materials under applied stress. This article discusses the types of acoustic emissions (continuous-type emissions and burst-type emissions) and applications, including...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... and causes metal-to-metal impact). The machine must be designed to detect failure or catastrophic machining events so they can be prevented. There are three basic elements to any modern sensing system, a sensing source, a signal amplifier, and a microprocessor or translator to interpret information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the successful application of MBN measurement and signal interpretation. The article provides an overview of basic magnetic phenomena and dynamics in ferromagnetic materials that underlie the origin of MBN emissions. It describes the changes in the domain structure of the ferromagnetic material under an applied...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Acoustic-emission inspection detects and analyzes minute acoustic-emission signals generated by discontinuities in materials under applied stress. This article discusses the types of acoustic emissions (continuous-type emissions and burst-type emissions) and applications...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... An alternating current is supplied to the large transmitter coil to generate a magnetic field. If the transmitter coil is not in the vicinity of a conductor, the two detector coils detect the same field, and the net signal is zero because they are wound in opposition to each other. However, if one end...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... signal by the part being inspected Processing of the inspection-coil signal prior to amplification Amplification of the inspection-coil signals Detection or demodulation of the inspection-coil signal, usually accompanied by some analysis or discrimination of signals, which can be performed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... The experimental apparatus for LEISS varies with the type of experiment, but is simple for most activities. Figure 9 shows an ion-scattering spectrometer that consists primarily of an ion beam, a target, an energy analyzer, and the electronics necessary for energy analysis and signal detection. Because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Processing of the inspection coil signal prior to amplification Amplification of the inspection coil signals Detection or demodulation of the inspection coil signal, usually accompanied by some analysis or discrimination of signals Display of signals on a screen; or recording of signal data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... nm (Auger) 1–3 μm (EDS) Requires UHV and careful surface preparation; can also detect electron loss signal Tables 2 and 3 provide an overview of the three types of scanning electron-beam instruments and summarize the source of the signals used. Table 2 compares the scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in the atomizer than that predicted by the Boltzmann equation at that temperature. Consequently, the absolute sizes of the atomic emission signals detected are larger than those seen in AES experiments performed with the same concentration of analyte atoms within the atomizer. A source-lamp modulation/signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... suited to detection of large, near-surface defects ( Ref 3 , 4 ). In the past decade, that picture has changed dramatically. Advances in IR camera technology and the availability of small, powerful computer platforms, combined with dedicated signal processing and excitation methods, have enabled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... applications, the separation of some analyte signals from spectral interferences may require higher resolution. Most polyatomic interferences can be resolved with R < 10,000, which can be accomplished by most sector-field-based mass analyzers (e.g., allowing the detection of 72,74 Ge, 75 As, or 78 Se...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... into the structure and excites a sensitive piezoelectric transducer. As the stress in the material is raised, many of these emissions are generated. Signals from one or more sensors are amplified, detected, and measured to produce data for display and interpretation. Fig. 1 Basic principle of acoustic emission...