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sigma-phase embrittlement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... embrittlement, strain-age and aluminum nitride embrittlement, thermal embrittlement, quench cracking, 475 deg C and sigma phase embrittlement (in FeCr alloys), temper embrittlement, and embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation. In addition, the article covers stress-corrosion cracking along with properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., 475 deg C embrittlement, and sigma-phase embrittlement. It also describes the effect of environment on fatigue crack growth rate. References 1. Davis J. , ASM Specialty Handbook-Stainless Steels , ASM International , 1993 2. Sedriks A.J. , Corrosion of Stainless Steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... root cause could be recommended. Intergranular brittle fracture can be due to many conditions, including a brittle grain-boundary phase, high strain rates, and embrittlement. Visually, the macroscopic plane of the intergranular brittle fracture appears relatively flat, perpendicular to the axis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and to determine if the fracture part is specific to any phase or constituent present. Although such specimens can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy is more efficient for such work, and certain information, such as the color or polarization response of constituents, can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 30 , 1942 , p 855 – 935 29. Hull F.C. , Effects of Composition on Embrittlement of Austenitic Stainless Steels , Weld. J. , Vol 52 , 1973 , p 104s – 113s 30. Franks R. et al. , Experiments on Etching Procedures for the Identification of the Sigma Phase in Austenitic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Special Wire Commodities Semifinished Products Pipe, Tubes, and Tubing Sensitization 475 °C Embrittlement Sigma-Phase Embrittlement Characteristics and Compositions Properties and Applications Characteristics and Compositions Properties and Applications Characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for their creep resistance, but they are not immune to reduced rupture life due to overaging. Topologically close-packed phases (commonly known as tcp), such as sigma, mu, and Laves phases, form at elevated temperatures in austenitic, high-temperature alloys. The morphology (shape) of the precipitates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are stress rupture, creep, low- or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, and coating degradation in gas turbines. For high-temperature tubing and piping components, embrittlement phenomena can occur at high temperatures due to metallurgical instabilities; for example, carbide coarsening, sigma-phase formation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The term rock candy is most often applied to coarse-grain materials where this appearance is visually evident. This fracture mechanism can be due to many conditions, including a brittle grain-boundary phase, high strain rates, or embrittlement. Visually, the macroscopic plane of the intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (log stress versus log time to failure) typically show an inflection when a change in fracture mechanism occurs, including significant formation of sigma phase and a change in fracture from transgranular to intergranular. Measurements of fracture strain also show a minimum when the mechanism changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... metallurgical consequences of welding are: The precipitation of intergranular, chromium-rich M 23 C 6 chromium carbides in the weld HAZ, which can leave these regions sensitive to corrosion The transformation of weld ferrite to sigma phase during elevated-temperature service, which can reduce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-corrosion cracking due to use of improper die lubricants Grain growth Incomplete phase transformation Quench cracks Decarburization Untempered martensite Temper embrittlement and similar embrittlement conditions Inadequate precipitation Sensitized microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and martensitic stainless steels. This article describes the effects of these metallurgical and processing variables on the susceptibility of the stainless steels to intergranular corrosion and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking and their testing methods. It explains the effect of sigma and related phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... sigma (σ) phase, which is based on the compound FeCr. Sigma phase has a lower temperature limit of formation (about 440 °C, or 825 °F). The σ solvus for the E-Brite alloy (see Table 3 ) is relatively low, probably less than 675 °C (1250 °F), and σ formation at low temperatures is sluggish. As a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... has described etching methods delineating oxide and sulfide phases in cobalt ( Ref 15 ). These etchants color the matrix phases, but do not affect the oxides and sulfides. Weeton and Signorelli ( Ref 16 ) have described different procedures for identifying sigma phases and carbides in wrought Stellite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and other organizations developed new management systems and processes aimed at improving quality and customer satisfaction. Some of these systems include Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Improvement (CI), and, more recently prominent, Six Sigma. Historically, these initiatives are founded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Sigma is a brittle phase that develops in ferritic and austenitic stainless steels after extensive exposure to temperatures ranging from 650 to 900 °C (1200 to 1650 °F). It forms more rapidly from ferrite than from austenite. Electrolytic etching with potassium hydroxide (KOH) reveals a sigma phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., analyzed, measured, or photographed. An etchant should be used that reveals all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ferrite to sigma phase. In this case, the impact strength at room temperature was only 7% of that of an as-welded sample containing austenite and delta ferrite. Note that the fracture path is microscopically flatter and consists of numerous connected short straight-line segments. The SEM fractograph shows...