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sigma phase embrittlement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... embrittlement, strain-age and aluminum nitride embrittlement, thermal embrittlement, quench cracking, 475 deg C and sigma phase embrittlement (in FeCr alloys), temper embrittlement, and embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation. In addition, the article covers stress-corrosion cracking along with properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... room-temperature mechanical properties and fatigue endurance limits of stainless steels. Stainless steels are susceptible to embrittlement during thermal treatment or elevated-temperature service. The article discusses embrittlement in terms of sensitization, 475 deg C embrittlement, and sigma-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the likelihood of overload fractures are included. The article focuses primarily on the contribution of embrittlement to overload failure. The embrittling phenomena are described and differentiated by their causes, effects, and remedial methods, so that failure characteristics can be directly compared during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... applied to coarse-grain materials where this appearance is visually evident. This fracture mechanism can be due to many conditions, including a brittle grain-boundary phase, high strain rates, or embrittlement. Visually, the macroscopic plane of the intergranular brittle fractures appears relatively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... etch; 6 V dc, 25 mm (1.0 in.) spacing. 15–30 s reveals carbides; grain boundaries revealed after 45–60 s; σ phase outlined after 6 s. Lower voltages (1–3 V dc) can be used. Dissolves carbides. Sigma strongly attacked, austenite moderately attacked, ferrite not attacked 17. 10 g NaCN (sodium cyanide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... ferrite to sigma phase during elevated-temperature service, which can reduce ductility and toughness These phenomena can be either minimized or eliminated through alloy selection, process optimization, or postweld heat treatment. In general, these alloys are very weldable. With an understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractures, and high-temperature fractures. brittle fracture cold cracking deep-field microscopy ductile fracture embrittlement etching fatigue fracture fracture replica light microscopy macroscopic examination quality control taper sectioning visual inspection THE VISUAL EXAMINATION...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steels. These alloys are widely used for their creep resistance, but they are not immune to reduced rupture life due to overaging. Intermetallic-Phase Precipitation Topologically close-packed phases (commonly known as tcp), such as sigma, mu, and Laves phases, form at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (log stress versus log time to failure) typically show an inflection when a change in fracture mechanism occurs, including significant formation of sigma phase and a change in fracture from transgranular to intergranular. Measurements of fracture strain also show a minimum when the mechanism changes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at high temperatures due to metallurgical instabilities; for example, carbide coarsening, sigma-phase formation, temper embrittlement, and so on can facilitate rapid brittle fracture at low temperatures during transient conditions. As a rule, the type of failure is established by examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be exposed to this temperature range. Sensitization is only visible in the etched condition ( Fig. 25 ). Fig. 25 Chrome carbides at grain boundaries forming “pearl necklace” in 316 stainless steel. Electrolytic oxalic acid etch Sigma Phase Sigma is a brittle phase that develops in ferritic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... into an organic uid, or gas molecules, atoms, or ions by a solid compound by substitution or addition. (2) A acid embrittlement. A form of hydrogen em- or liquid. Compare with absorption. re nery process for chemically combining is- brittlement that may be induced in some met- oparaf n with ole n hydrocarbons...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the selection of stainless steel, namely corrosion resistance, fabrication characteristics, product forms, thermally induced embrittlement, mechanical properties in specific temperature ranges, and product cost. austenitic stainless steel chemical composition corrosion resistance duplex stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., such as temper embrittlement, sigma-phase embrittlement, and 475 °C embrittlement Successful heat treatment relies on the proper combination of time and temperature to achieve uniformity of temperature throughout the part and to complete the metallurgical changes necessary. For example, when cold-worked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... variables on the susceptibility of the stainless steels to intergranular corrosion and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking and their testing methods. It explains the effect of sigma and related phases on the corrosion behavior of stainless steels. carbon distribution nitrogen metallic phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... temperatures ( Fig. 1 ). Many of these alloys are subject to the precipitation of undesirable intermetallic phases when exposed to certain temperature ranges. The higher-chromium alloys can be embrittled by precipitation of the tetragonal sigma (σ) phase, which is based on the compound FeCr. Sigma phase has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0005547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... ASP antisegregation process DIN Deutsche Industrie-Norrnen DIS Ductile Iron Society ac alternating current ASTM Amelican Society for Testing and Materials DP dual phase AC air cooled DQ drawing quality DQSK drawing quality special killed Ac,m in hyporeutectoid steel, at.% atomic percent DRCR dynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... range Greek Alphabet P, p pi DS entropy change R, r rho ep plastic strain range A, a alpha S, s sigma et total strain range B, b beta T, t tau g overpotential C, c gamma U, u upsilon mm micron (micrometer) D, d delta W, w phi n kinematic viscosity X, x chi W phase angle; phi Y, y psi V, v omega ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.9781627081832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2