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shock wave loading

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... signals from scattering. The generation of ultrasound with lasers nearly goes back to the invention of the first laser, the ruby laser ( Ref 1 ), which was used to generate ultrasound or shock waves in materials ( Ref 2 , 3 ). Optical detection, on the other hand, has developed more slowly, for a long...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... performed using a frequency between 1 and 25 MHz. Short shock bursts of ultrasonic energy are aimed into the material from the ultrasonic search unit of the ultrasonic flaw-detector instrument. The electrical pulse from the flaw detector is converted into ultrasonic energy by a piezoelectric transducer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... biomaterials in surgical implant applications, such as orthopedic, cardiovascular surgery, and dentistry. It addresses the key issues related to simulation of the in vivo environment, service conditions, and data interpretation. Theses include frequency of dynamic loading, electrolyte chemistry, applicable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metal-to-metal contact ( Ref 1 ). The factors preventing adhesive wear can be summarized and categorized into groups ( Ref 3 , 6 , 62 , 70 , 73 ): Controlling contact severity by avoiding shocks and elevated levels and by keeping load, speed, and temperature as low as possible...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... HP-9-4-30 steel is available as billet, bar, rod, plate, sheet, and strip. It has been used for aircraft structural components, pressure vessels, rotor shafts for metal forming equipment, drop hammer rods, and high-strength shock-absorbing automotive parts. The steel AF1410 was an outgrowth of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress above the design value or when the material strength is degraded. If either situation is a characteristic of the fabricated structure, the design must be changed to allow for these factors more realistically. When rapid or impulse loads are applied, as in impact, shock loading, or high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... body-centered cubic bct body-centered tetragonal Bé Baumé (specific-gravity scale) BUE built-up edge c edge length in crystal structure; speed of light; specific heat; constant; conductivity C cementite; coulomb; heat capacity C constant; velocity of light; shock...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... influence the reinforcement-matrix interface in a ceramic-matrix composite Factor Example Intrinsic property interaction Load transfer Magnitude of bonding Strong, none, or mixed Type of bonding Chemical, physical, mixed Type of coating Fugitive or “permanent” Reaction products...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of load application, duration of contact period, and impact. To limit the shock that can occur when the operator removes the load (this generally has an adverse effect on indentations made with loads below 500 g), an automatic test cycle is built into the Tukon microhardness tester. With this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... In some instances, failures may occur despite the application of conventional surface treatments that often have a limited depth of effectiveness. With the advent of enhanced surface treatments such as ultrasonic impact treatment and laser shock peening, compressive residual-stress layers can be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... workpieces into and out of the processing chamber. Delicate parts may require holding fixtures to withstand buffeting during the thermal shock wave. Bulk loading baskets are used for handling small parts in lots up to hundreds per load. Typical applications The ability of HDM to cut very thin, soft...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... smoking the surface of such a sheet with soot, wiping the edge areas clean, and exposing it to a high-wattage lamp. Thermal shock, impact, and mechanical stresses can be applied by the standard materials-testing methods. It is profitable to be familiar with typical origins, and specimens should be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... crack front and an elastic shock wave in the material ( Ref 9 ). Fig. 15 Wallner lines (arrow) on the surface of a fractured WC-Co specimen. TEM formvar replica. Etched with 5% HCl. (S.B. Luyckx, University of the Witwatersrand) A fracture that is the result of repetitive or cyclic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... isolated to eliminate shock loading from failure in adjacent test cells. Creep curves generally exhibit three distinct phases. First-stage creep deformation is characterized by a rapid deformation rate that decreases slowly to a constant value. The four-parameter model was proposed to describe long-term...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... development of induction heat treating practices continued to grow after World War II, and output transformers were developed to help the power supplies and load match when using low-turn work coils. From the 1940s through the 1950s, the use and application of large motor generators and radio-frequency (RF...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) Nitrided. Source: Ref 1 The important properties required of materials for die casting are resistance to thermal shock and to softening at elevated temperatures. Resistance to softening is required to withstand the erosive action of molten metal at high injection velocity. Other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Diffraction is the coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves (e.g., light or x-rays) or moving subatomic particles (e.g., electrons or neutrons) by materials containing structural units with sizes similar to the wavelengths of the impinging radiation. Crystalline solids are regular periodic structures made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with controlled grain size and orientation to achieve the desired directional thermal expansion and strength properties. Proper grain orientation is the key to the prevention of thermal shock failure during use. The preparation of a ceramic sample for microstructural analysis requires great care...