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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... stiffness effects. The article presents the study of instability associated with postbuckling behavior and hygrothermal buckling in composite sandwich panels and shell panels. composites orthotropic plates anisotropic plates unsymmetric plates transverse shear stiffness postbuckling hygrothermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... A.K. , Burton W.S. , and Bert C.W. , Computational Models for Sandwich Panels and Shells , Appl. Mech. Rev. , Vol 49 ( No. 3 ), March 1996 , p 155 – 199 10.1115/1.3101923 • Paydar N. and Libove C. , Stress Analysis of Sandwich Plates with Unidirectional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... finishes, metal thicknesses, and alloying. The article explains the bending and forming operations with some examples. It also describes the formation of various shells, including doubly contoured shells, deep recessed shells, and deep circular shells. alloying formability high-carbon steels low...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article focuses on the construction, operation of electric arc furnaces (EAF), and their auxiliary equipment in the steel foundry industry. It provides information on the power supply of EAF and discusses the components of the EAF, including the roof, furnace shell, spout and tap...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... flange, bending at the die radius, and straightening in the die wall. The process is capable of forming beverage cans, sinks, cooking pots, ammunition shell containers, pressure vessels, and auto body panels and parts. The term deep drawing implies that some drawing-in of the flange metal occurs and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... secondary structures, they provide important flowpath performance benefits. The inner duct has a 100 cm (40 in.) diameter, 40 cm (15 in.) length, and 1.5 mm (0.060 in.) thick shell, and is fabricated with T300-PMR-15 fabric. The frame splitter panels ( Ref 23 ) are eight separate curved panels approximately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... nonstructural applications on spacecraft (Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , and 15 ). These applications include truss structure, equipment-panel structure, optical benches, radiators, solar array support structures, antenna reflectors, antenna masts, electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... layer of fiber insulation to form a catalytic converter heat shield. The semicircular ends of the laminate heat shield were not watertight. Saltwater soaked the fiber mat, putting salt crystals in intimate contact with the 304 surfaces. The 304 layer closest to the hot converter shell experienced...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... body panels, load floors, bumper face bars, bumpers, reinforcements, structural and weldable parts, seat shells 6022 0.08–1.5 Si Outer and inner body panels 6061 0.40–0.8 Si Body components (extruded), brackets (extruded and sheet), suspension parts (forgings), driveshafts (tubes), driveshaft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... in Thin Panel Structures , Koichi Masubuchi: A Welding Research & Engineering Festchrift , Morris R.G. , Ed., MIT Sea Grant Program ( Cambridge, MA ), 20000 , p 73 – 96 73. Bathe K.J. , Finite Element Procedures , Prentice-Hall, Inc. , New Jersey , 1996 74...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... applied manually into a female fiberglass mold. The second mold half is, in general, a flexible fiberglass shell. A small injection machine is commonly used to automate mixing of the resin components. The injection machine also shortens the cycle time due to pressurization of the inlet. Body panels are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... panel dimensions, or defines framing to suit the shell properties. Often the result is well in excess of the minimum requirements for local panel stiffness and strength, as laid down in the guide, and may appear “over-engineered” simply because the skin thickness constraint dominates. Luxury...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... 87-15, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, MA , Aug 1987 2. Rhodes M.D. , Mikulus M.M. Jr. , and McGowan P.E. , Effects of Orthotropy and Width on the Compression Strength of Graphite-Epoxy Panels with Holes , AIAA J...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., hydroforming, and clam-shell-resistant design via FE analysis and the Taguchi ( Ref 1 ) optimization method. References 1. Taguchi G. , Taguchi on Robust Technology Development , ASME Press , 1993 10.1115/1.800288 2. Richmond O. and Spitzig W.A. , Pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... create other forming problems, such as wrinkling, tearing, and uncontrollable springback. Despite these formability concerns, TWBs incorporated into the automobile body were prudent to reap the potential rewards they offer. Some of the components where TWBs are currently being used are body side panels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... vigorous reaction. The second problem occurs mainly in curved shells ( Ref 14 ) and is a function of resin shrinkage, fiber orientation, and thickness-to-diameter ratio. This can be resolved in many cases by adding flexibilizers, reducing the proportion of hoop reinforcement or redesign. Sandwich panels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... calculations and point-stress analysis to micromechanical modeling to shell buckling and other structural considerations. The problem now becomes one of finding a program that meets the user's needs. References 1. Young W.C. and Budynas R.G. , Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., and weldability. Typical applications of HSS include panels, chassis, and structural components (door beams, wheels, bumpers, seats, suspensions, etc.). The ULSAB project used 91% of the vehicle weight from HSS and AHSS grades, as shown in Table 7 ( Ref 1 ). The Ultralight Steel Auto Closures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... process for shaping smoothly contoured, large-radius parts by applying three-point bending forces progressively along the part surface (see the article “Three-Roll Forming” in this Volume). Usually, one or more of the forming rolls is driven. The process has been used to form curved panel sections and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... produce parts with sharp contours or depressions. It is primarily used to make aircraft skin panels, window frames, and automotive door panels. The four methods of stretch forming are: Stretch draw forming ( Fig. 1a and b ) Stretch wrapping, also called rotary stretch forming ( Fig. 1c...