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shell hardening

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Published: 01 January 2006
, and isotropic hardening. (2) Plane strain, N IP =51, N EL =600, von Mises yield, and isotropic hardening. (3) Plane stress, N IP =51, N EL =600, von Mises yield, and isotropic hardening. (4) 3-D shell, N IP =51, N EL =600, von Mises yield, and isotropic hardening. (5) 3-D shell, N IP =51, N EL More
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in a relatively light and easy-to-handle shell. Firing at 925–1000 °C (1700–1830 °F) for 5 min removes the EPS pattern and hardens the shell. Successive coats of refractory slurry and stucco are applied. Five to ten coats are required; completed shells are often heavy and difficult to handle. Firing at 1000 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Flame hardening is a heat treating process in which a thin surface shell of a steel part is heated rapidly to a temperature above the critical temperatures of the steel. The versatility of flame-hardening equipment and the wide range of heating conditions obtainable with gas burners...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, brittle fracture, and in-service rotary bending fatigue fracture of fractured roof-truss angles, pressure-vessel shells, automotive axle shafts, broken keyed spindles, crane gears, blooming-mill spindles, automotive bolts, and crane wheels of these steels. axle shafts brittle fracture...
Image
Published: 12 September 2022
Fig. 3 Examples of stainless steel components for medical use. Laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF)-printed additive-manufactured 316 (a) acetabular shell and (b) a cut guide customized for hip and knee replacement surgery. (c) Components postprocessed via vibratory tumbling. Source: Ref 32 . (d More
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
of the edge is worn away and ground off in resharpening, the life of W2 between grinds continuously decreases until all of the hardened shell is gone and the blade must be scrapped or rehardened. (c) Effect of hardness of cutting edge on wear of shear blades More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... finishes, metal thicknesses, and alloying. The article explains the bending and forming operations with some examples. It also describes the formation of various shells, including doubly contoured shells, deep recessed shells, and deep circular shells. alloying formability high-carbon steels low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., and clam-shell-resistant design via FE analysis and the Taguchi ( Ref 1 ) optimization method. Material Modeling Plasticity of Aluminum Alloys Macroscopic Observations Aspects of the plastic deformation and ductility of aluminum alloys at low and moderate strain rates and subjected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract This article tabulates the nominal compositions for nickel and cobalt alloys. It illustrates the comparison of strain-hardening rates of a number of alloys in terms of the increase in hardness with increasing cold reduction. The forming practice for age-hardenable alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... affecting stretchability are the material's work-hardening index and strain-rate sensitivity. Greater work-hardening ability and rate sensitivity spreads the tendency for thinning to material surrounding the thinning region, thus delaying the formation of tears in the material. Materials with low work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The types of dies and other tooling used for conventional deep drawing are illustrated in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Schematic showing tools used for the first draw (top) and the first redraw (bottom) in deep drawing It is sometimes necessary for redrawn shells to have a wrinkle-free sidewall of uniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...: perfectly plastic (no hardening), linear hardening ( Ref 2 ), power-law hardening ( Ref 3 , Ref 4 , Ref 5 , Ref 6 , Ref 7 ), or a general approach (requiring graphical or other numerical integration) ( Ref 8 , 9 ). Basic Equations and Approach The approach is illustrated in Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... cases, for molds for smaller castings. In heat-cured binder systems, the resin hardens when heated, as in the case of the shell process or furan warm box. On the other hand, cold box systems use a vapor form of catalyst. Since World War II, many chemical binder systems have been introduced and used...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., namely, ceramic shells and rammed graphite, for casting reactive metals such as titanium or zirconium. ceramic shells coremaking green sand operations titanium zirconium clay resin-bonded sand systems no-bake binder systems heat-cured binder systems cold box binder systems rammed graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... low rate of work hardening as compared with typical draw-quality steels. Some aluminum alloys also have a low and even negative strain-rate hardening factor, making them significantly more sensitive to problems related to careless die design. Formability is also a function of the wide range...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Shell molding is used for making production quantities of castings that range in weight from a few ounces to approximately 180 kg (400 lb), in both ferrous and nonferrous metals. This article lists the limitations or disadvantages of shell mold casting. It describes the two methods...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the pattern materials used in investment casting, which can be loosely grouped into waxes and plastics. The patternmaking process, pattern tooling, and pattern and cluster assembly are described. The article also describes the manufacture of ceramic shell molds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... speed, lubrication, and type of restraint of metal flow used. The article describes the process of redrawing and ironing of metals. Drawing of workpieces with flanges and drawing of hemispheres are also illustrated. The article also provides information on the reducing of drawn shells, methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Babbitting is a process by which relatively soft metals are bonded chemically or mechanically to a stronger shell or stiffener which supports the weight and torsion of a rotating, oscillating, or sliding shaft. This article focuses on workpiece preparation and babbitting methods. Prior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and dimensioning, the design and manufacture of shell molds, melting and casting methods, and postcasting operations such as knockout, core removal, and cleaning. It also addresses a wide range of design considerations, discusses casting defects, and provides several design examples. aluminum alloys casting...