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sheet-metal forming

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on the various drive systems and the auxiliary equipment. It describes the selection of die materials and lubricants for sheet metal forming and provides information on the lubrication mechanisms and selection with a list of lubricant types for forming of specific sheet materials of ferrous or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... complex forming operations, through the use of the finite element method, are also presented. axial deformation body centered-cubic sheets deformation texture finite element method forming plastic deformation rolled face-centered-cubic zirconium METALS are polycrystalline aggregates, that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for the press-brake forming of refractory metal sheet 0.5 to 1.3 mm (0.020 to 0.050 in.) thick Metal or alloy Forming temperature, °C (°F) Minimum bend radius (a) Springback, degrees Test data Preferred Niobium alloys (annealed) C-103 (Nb-10Hf-1Ti), C-129Y (Nb-10Hf-10W) Room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... increased efficiency in the metalworking industry. In metalworking, an initially simple workpiece—a billet or a blanked sheet, for example—is plastically deformed between tools (or dies) to obtain the desired final configuration. Metal-forming processes are usually classified according to two broad...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the lower tensile and yield strengths of aluminum alloys, and from their comparatively slow rate of work hardening. The compositions and tempers of aluminum alloys also affect their formability. BERYLLIUM has been successfully formed by most common sheet metal forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... materials. Powder consolidation has been performed primarily by HIP (in metal or ceramic cans) or canned hot extrusion. Hot isostatic pressing has been used to make finished parts as well as preforms for subsequent sheet rolling, forging, and so forth ( Ref 89 , Ref 90 , Ref 91 , Ref 92 ). Hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... solid). For most metals n has values between 0.10 and 0.50. Fig. 6 Log-log plot of true stress-true strain curve. n is the strain-hardening exponent; K is the strength coefficient Fig. 7 Different forms of the power curve σ= K ε n for different values of n Note that the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... obvious approach involves modeling of the void coalescence phenomenon normally associated with ductile fracture. Another approach involves a model of localized thinning of sheet metal that has been adapted to lk forming processes. In addition to models of fracture, criteria have been developed from...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... process used to form ceramic components from a dry powder by uniform pressing from all directions. It is also used with many other materials, such as metals, plastics, graphite, and carbon. The process is accomplished by enclosing the powder in a deformable mold and then collapsing that mold using a fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... generally denotes cold forming of plate, sheet, bars, beams, pipe, or angular cross section lengths into selected shapes by passing the metal workpiece between three correctly spaced rolls ( Ref 1 , 5 ). The roll forming process employs pairs of small opposed rollers to shape a cylindrical workpiece into a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... shop trial. When unexpected metal flow occurs, a part with underfill, excessive loads, die breakage, laps, or other production problems can result. In one case ( Ref 21 ), a fastener manufacturer noted a small defect during the shop trial of an automotive part ( Fig. 40 ). The forming process was...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... manufacturing to improve workability, machinability, and other factors affecting manufacturing performance. Although the heat treatment processes are vital steps in the process chain of many components based on metals and alloys, they are also one of the major causes of rejected components, production losses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... electronic equipment, food-handling and processing equipment, and laboratory clamps. It is generally produced with a matte finish formed by applying the coating to basis metal sheet called “black plate,” which has a dull surface texture, and leaving the coating unmelted. It can also be produced with a bright...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article also provides formulas for flat rolling, conical-die extrusion, wire drawing, deep drawing of cups from sheet metal, and bending, and formulas for anisotropic sheet materials. bending conical-die extrusion deep drawing flat rolling sheet metal forming strain strain rate stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Titanium metal passes through three major steps during processing from ore to finished product: reduction of titanium ore to sponge (porous form), melting of sponge and scrap to form ingot, and remelting and casting into finished shape. This article describes primary fabrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... forming of the coated sheet. For painted end uses, such as automobiles and metal buildings, a smoother, nonspangled surface is desirable for appearance purposes. When this is the case, lead or the other spangle-promoting elements can be omitted from the bath. When it is desirable to produce both spangled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... finished ton to an average of 3 man-hours per finished ton in 2004. Many North American plants are producing a ton of finished steel in less than 1 man-hour ( Ref 2 ). Steel products include hot rolled shapes, bars, rods, wire, hot and cold rolled sheet and strip, plates, tin mill products, metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Porcelain enamels are glass coatings applied primarily to products or parts made of sheet steel, cast iron, and aluminum to improve appearance and to protect the metal surface. This article describes the types of porcelain enamels, and details enamel frits for these materials. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... function and property requirements for resins and additives; size, shape, design, and cost of molded parts; equipment type and size; and the type of mold to be used. Commonly used molds include cast aluminum, fabricated sheet metal, nickel deposit, machined aluminum, silicone, fiberglass, and prototype...