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shape quantification

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... is to enable measurements not possible by other methods, for example, in terms of distance; size, shape, and composition of the sample; and speed and spatial resolution. These characteristics have made LIBS an outstanding technique for applications involving inline analysis of materials in various...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shapes or sizes during the subsequent steps of metallographic preparation and examination. A secondary purpose is to protect and preserve extreme edges or surface defects during metallographic preparation. The method of mounting should in no way be injurious to the microstructure of the specimen...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Castability of alloys is a measure of their ability to be cast to a given shape with a given process without the formation of casting defects. This article describes the factors that limit fluidity as well as experimental methods for measuring fluidity of various alloys. Various tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Titanium alloys are forged into a variety of shapes and types of forgings, with a broad range of final part forging design criteria based on the intended end-product application. This article begins with a discussion on the classes of titanium alloys, their forgeability, and factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the essential components, and explains their function only to the extent that it helps the operator obtain the desired results. An explanation of how the components of ion optical column shape and steer the ion beam to the desired target locations is then provided. The article also reviews the many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... possible, but the powder must be conformed to an adequate shape for the GD source design (pin or pellet). Powder is first homogenized and then compacted by pressing or sintering processes. For the analysis of nonconductive samples using a direct current GD, a secondary cathode (e.g., metal mask containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... levels involved in AES, the chemical bonding effect is much more complex than in XPS and is most often recognized as a peak shape change that impedes elemental quantification ( Ref 3 ). However, the knowledge of standard spectra of the relevant factors (or principal components) allows the decomposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... orientation (texture) Residual macrostress Shape and size distribution of the coherently scattering domains (crystallites) Local lattice distortion and possible origin (lattice defects type and quantity) Quantification of the phases present in the system Order/disorder parameters The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... containing highly stable nitrides or oxides require special treatment. Metals with low boiling points require special treatment. Solid samples in the range of 0.1 g to several grams are usually machined to fit into the sample cups of the instrument. It is desirable to use regular shapes with small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.../vibro-thermography, inductive IR Acoustic or inductive energy is applied to part and cracks heat up more than surrounding regions. Detection of surface-breaking cracks Acoustic energy is mode and shape sensitive so nonuniform in heating effect. Also no crack depth information Same as thermal/IR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chemical environment of atoms in the surface region of a solid can affect the measured Auger spectrum. For example, the kinetic energy at which an Auger transition occurs, Auger peak shape, and/or the loss structure associated with Auger transitions can change. Precise measurements to determine energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... images combined using an extended depth-of-field technique to allow the surfaces of interest to be in focus in a single image. Sample size, shape, and condition requirements depend on the configuration of the microscope. Low-magnification stereomicroscopes are small and have a long focal length (up...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... indicated microstructural features. (b) The long rod-shaped precipitate (point 1) is a beryllium sulfide. (c) The small round precipitate (point 2) is a titanium carbide. (d) The small irregular precipitate (point 3) is also a titanium carbide. (e) The large blocky angular precipitate (point 4) is a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... machine External and internal shape Best suited for complex shapes where coring is required Simple sand cores can be used, but more difficult to insert than in sand castings Cores must be able to be pulled because they are metal; undercuts can be formed only by collapsing cores or loose pieces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... radiographic modeling, one is essentially trying to predict how the two-dimensional projection of an irregularly shaped object changes as the position of the object changes with respect to the x-ray beam and detector and, further, to study the degree to which various parameters control image quality ( Ref 44...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... techniques. For instance, optical microscopy of thin sections gives optical indexes and extinction angles. Crystal shape and color can be used to identify phases in either transmission or reflection modes, providing additional knowledge of the system. An example of a common application is the identification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... nuclear properties, such as natural abundance or nuclear spin characteristics. For example, 11 B is much easier to study with NMR than the 10 B isotope of boron. The distribution of charges in the nucleus determines the magnitude and shape of the magnetic moment. A spherical distribution of charges...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with the help of electropolishing techniques. The four residual stress factors are summarized in Table 1 . Examples of residual stress introduced by grinding, milling, turning, planing, shaping, electrical discharge machining ( Ref 29 ), abrasive tumbling, rolling, and shot peening can be found in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... sizes and shapes of features appearing on the images, electronic transmission of images to other locations, and electronic incorporation of images into reports. As can be seen from the above description, the SEM really is not a microscope in the classical sense—it has no lenses that magnify the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Tributyl phosphate in a hydrocarbon organic phase is used to extract Fe 3+ from hydrochloric leaching solutions of Ni mattes. Source: Ref 9 Ion exchange is used for a method of quantification when the analyte of interest has a charge. Both anions and cations can be analyzed via ion exchange...