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shape quantification

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the general rules and guidelines for optimization of image processing algorithms from the viewpoint of shape quantification. It concludes with examples that demonstrate the usefulness of automatic image analysis in comparison to manual methods. automatic image analysis digital measurements image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., vacuum compatibility Auger electron spectroscopy Elemental chemical Surface sensitive, spatial resolution, light-element detection, depth profiling Vacuum compatibility, conductive samples X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Elemental chemical/chemical state Surface sensitive, quantification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Standard Method External Standard Method Reference Intensity Ratio Method Direct Comparison Method Quantitative Phase Analysis Using the Rietveld Method Partial or No Known Crystal Structure Method Quantification of an Amorphous Fraction Crystal-Particle Statistics Preferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of interest to monitor binding energy shifts that can provide chemical information. These scans are obtained using much higher energy-resolution conditions on the spectrometer compared to the survey spectra. Because the peak shapes obtained in this mode are more accurate, quantification is also better...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) for 2 h. (b) Silicon and (c) carbon Auger peak shapes at various sputter times (depths) in the profile, showing chemical-state changes. Source: Ref 61 Fig. 31 Surface segregation equilibrium region of copper and sulfur as a function of the temperature for the ternary Ni-18.7at.%Cu(S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... spectrometry in bulk analysis Bulk analysis applications References High-purity metals for primary standard reference materials in metrology 40–44 Quantification of trace elements in steel 45–49 Analysis of high-purity aluminum and aluminum alloys 50–54 Round-robin using copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... of shape descriptors (e.g., anisotropy, elongation, and flatness) and size distribution (e.g., effective diameter and Feret diameter) used to measure powder should also be applied to powder porosity quantification. Correlations between the characteristics of individual powder and of individual powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... peaks overlaps with the nitrogen (381 eV) peak. Source: Ref 10 Chemical Effects and Compound Analysis Because of the three electron levels involved in AES, the chemical bonding effect is much more complex than in XPS and is most often recognized as a peak shape change that impedes elemental...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of interest to monitor binding-energy shifts that can provide chemical information. These scans are obtained using much higher energy-resolution conditions on the spectrometer compared to the survey spectra. Because the peak shapes obtained in this mode are more accurate, quantification is also better...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and development trends in OES methods. This is followed by a description of the general principles and optical systems of OES, along with various types of emission sources commonly used for OES. Some of the processes involved in calibration and quantification of OES for direct solids analysis by the ratio method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... spectrometry Useful for organics, quantification of volatiles and unknowns Bulk Auger spectroscopy Fluorescence Low limits of detection, depth profiles, high operational cost Surface X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) Fluorescence High matrix interference, relatively high limits of detection...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and Precision Amount of Material Sampled Limitations Sample Requirements Operating Principles Capabilities of Related Techniques Detection and quantification of elements with atomic number 5 or higher (older energy dispersive units with beryllium window detectors are limited to atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... distinct, x-ray spectrometry (see the article “X-Ray Spectrometry” in this Volume) can provide the necessary quantification more easily and often more accurately ( Ref 14 ). The second reason for the increasing interest in quantitative XRPD is the availability of automated powder diffractometers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by the software used to interpret the data, and require expertise on how to report the results. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is an example of a semiquantitative or qualitative method, where the software allows the operator to add or remove elements from the quantification of the results, and lack of care...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... methodologies germane to measuring the high-strain-rate uniaxial stress response of polymers and other soft materials. Split-Hopkinson Bar Testing of Polymers The quantification of the uniaxial stress-strain compressive response of low mechanical impedance soft materials in the SHPB has been the subject...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... is that the signal exceeds a detection threshold. Quantification of this aspect of NDE is known as the probability of detection (POD) ( Ref 1 ). The detection threshold must be set sufficiently low to ensure detection of significant flaws yet not so low that noise or normal variations in the signal frequently exceed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 2. Quantitative Fractography, at all Fall Meeting , Pittsburg, PA , American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers , Oct 1980 3. Quantification of Nonplanar Surfaces , at the 3rd European Symposium on Stereology , Ljubljana , Yugoslavia , June 1981 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the uncertainty or fluctuations in the background due to the substrate, N B , and the sample, N B,x , for detection and quantification. Fig. 4 Background spectra, experimental and theoretical, for 3-MeV protons on thin clean transition metal substrates. E r is the energy of the electron recoil...
Book Chapter

By D.R. Crow
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001741
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... concentrations of two species whose reduction involves the same number of electrons. A, reversible; B, irreversible Fig. 4 The shape of a polarogram distorted by a maximum. Fig. 5 Single-sweep voltammogram obtained at a carbon-wax electrode for 10 −3 mol/L Ag + ion in 0.1 mol/L KNO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... or inductive sensors, mainly use a change in length or distance as an indicator for wear. Such measurements give a good feedback about changes occurring in wear behavior, but exact quantification is limited by thermal, plastic, or elastic elongations, as well as by the presence of a lubricant or particles...