1-20 of 84 Search Results for

semiconductor wafer fabrication

Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... that the factors outside the normal processing of wafers or tool-specific problems can contribute to metal-line corrosion. corrosion semiconductor wafer fabrication batch metal-etch systems single-wafer metal-etch systems metal-line corrosion THE MICROELECTRONICS INDUSTRY is one of the fastest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fabrication methods, sample preparation, bulk/elemental characterization methods, microstructural characterization methods, surface characterization methods, and electronic characterization methods. semiconductor characterization Introduction This article introduces various techniques commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... silicon fabrication. It is much more difficult to grow a single-crystal ingot from two elements than it is from one, especially when the arsenic tends to diffuse out of the melt a temperatures lower than those required for GaAs crystal growth. Consequently, GaAs wafers have more imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... fabrication, the surface needs to be planarized at some point before the next processing step. One method involves depositing the PECVD oxide film over the processed wafer, followed by deposition and flow of photoresist. The photoresist and the oxide films are then dry etched. The etch rate of the PECVD oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-silicon or silicon-hydrogen bonds. Real-world silicon wafer surfaces are often covered with an oxide layer trapped with various particles (metallic and ionic) and contaminants, which must be removed through various surface-cleaning processes prior to semiconductor device fabrication. Cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of CMP through a schematic illustration of CMP process equipment. The applications of CMP to tungsten and copper alloys are of prime interest in the semiconductor industry. The article discusses copper CMP and tungsten CMP in detail and analyzes polishing mechanism during CMP by application of direct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.../precipitates, stacking faults, growth-sector boundaries, twins, and low-angle grain boundaries, as well as other lattice distortions in crystalline materials of a wide range of chemical compositions and physical properties, such as semiconductors, oxides, metals, and organic materials. The complete name x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... However, there are many special situations in which larger samples must be investigated. These include stages for the following applications: Semiconductor wafers: There are several applications in the semiconductor industry that require AFM scanning on structures located on a semiconductor wafer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... susceptible to fine airborne particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0.05∼2 μm (0.002∼0.08 mil) ( Ref 34 , 35 , 36 ). These fine particles are rich in ammonium acid sulfate and are difficult to remove by filtration. See the article “Corrosion in Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication” in this Volume. Storage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and their cost advantage also have attracted the attention of the thin-film (PVD and CVD) community toward thermal spray technology. In recent years, thermal spray processing increasingly has been used to support thin-film processes involved in the fabrication of semiconductor electronics and other related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract In a typical semiconductor integrated circuits (SICs) component, corrosion may be observed at the chip level and at the termination area of the lead frames that are plated with a solderable metal or alloy, such as tin and tin-lead alloys that are susceptible to corrosion. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the 1970s to introduce dopant atoms reproducibly into silicon wafers to modify electrical performance, and it is used routinely in several stages of integrated circuit production. It allows fabrication of electronic devices not producible by any other process, largely due to the highly reproducible control...
Book Chapter

By Koji Kato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in the past 30 years as an essential technology for planar and defect-free surfaces of microelectrical semiconductor devices such as the submicron integrated circuit ( Ref 51 , 52 , 53 ). Present challenges in the field include the CMP of patterned copper wafers ( Ref 54 ), multifilm layers ( Ref 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... by the width to determine the squares, and multiply the result by the sheet resistance. Sheet resistance is well suited for semiconductor electronics because the resistance depth profiles in silicon wafers can be simplified to a single sheet resistance reported in ohms per square. However, conductive inks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... 1960s. The use of germanium as a semiconductor substrate deserves special mention. In this application, single-crystal wafers of germanium are used as substrates for the epitaxial deposition of gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) for use as light-emitting diodes or solar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of the photomultiplier, the laser, and the desktop computer have greatly enhanced the use of this technique to the point that it is now routinely used as a metrology tool in semiconductor wafer manufacturing. Instrumentation Figure 4 shows the basic requirements for SWE. The figure shows the arrangement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... layers between silicon semiconductor wafers and copper conductors in integrated circuits. Diffusion barriers are typically 2 to 3 nm thick and are deposited by magnetron sputtering using either PM or ingot metallurgical (IM) tantalum targets. Some 80 to 90% of tantalum powders for capacitor...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Tubular SOFCs, the design most intensively studied, offer the potential for less complex gas manifolding but with more complex cell fabrication. The SOFC relies on transport of oxygen ions through a dense ceramic electrolyte. In operation, oxygen (in air) is fed to the cathode (porous perovskite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., such as scrubbing systems, particle filters, and burn boxes. Effluent Scrubbing Systems The semiconductor wafer fabrication industry uses a variety of corrosive, toxic, pyrophoric, and flammable chemicals. In order to control pollution by toxic materials, different types of scrubbers are used. In the past...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... strength and stiffness Reduced thermal stresses Increased reliability Simplified thermal design Potential elimination of heat pipes Low cost, net-shape fabrication processes Potential cost reductions Composites are in a state of continual development that undoubtedly will result...