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semiconductor wafer fabrication

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... illustrates that the factors outside the normal processing of wafers or tool-specific problems can contribute to metal-line corrosion. corrosion semiconductor wafer fabrication batch metal-etch systems single-wafer metal-etch systems metal-line corrosion THE MICROELECTRONICS INDUSTRY is one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... be adversely affect the electronic properties of a device constructed on the wafer. Gallium arsenide also has lower production yields than silicon. From ingot to usable wafers, GaAs has an effective yield of about 15%. Gallium arsenide wafers are brittle and subject to breakage during device fabrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... (GaAs), and the various epitaxial thin film semiconductors that can be grown on single-crystal wafer substrates. These materials are characterized first by their single-crystal nature and lack of transverse phase domains or grain boundaries, and often are fabricated at very high purity levels. Despite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... driven atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD and LPCVD, respectively) are well understood and established methods for depositing films in integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology (see the article “Chemical Vapor Deposition of Semiconductor Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... , Cadien K.C. , and Yano H. , Ed., Chemical-Mechanical Polishing 2001—Advances and Future Challenges , Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings , April 2001 , p 671 • Zant P.V. , Microchip Fabrication: A Practical Guide to Semiconductor Processing , 4th ed. , McGraw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with an oxide layer trapped with various particles (metallic and ionic) and contaminants, which must be removed through various surface-cleaning processes prior to semiconductor device fabrication. Cleaning effectiveness and quality control of wafer surface cleanliness are largely determined by monitoring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... are particularly susceptible to fine airborne particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0.05∼2 μm (0.002∼0.08 mil) ( Ref 34 , 35 , 36 ). These fine particles are rich in ammonium acid sulfate and are difficult to remove by filtration. See the article “Corrosion in Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication” in this Volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in Semiconductor Crystals , J. Appl. Phys. , Vol 36 , 1965 , p 2712 – 2714 , 10.1063/1.1714567 9. Tuomi T. , Naukkarinen K. , and Rabe P. , Use of Synchrotron Radiation in X-Ray-Diffraction Topography , Phys. Status Solidi (a) , Vol 25 , 1974 , p 93 – 106 , 10.1002/pssa.2210250106...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscopes can be helpful for measuring the dimensions of fabricated devices, such as gratings, semiconductor devices, and storage media. Horizontal dimensions, such as pitch, are readily measured with an AFM. Vertical measurements of devices can be measured. However, the same protocol should be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to introduce dopant atoms reproducibly into silicon wafers to modify electrical performance, and it is used routinely in several stages of integrated circuit production. It allows fabrication of electronic devices not producible by any other process, largely due to the highly reproducible control of dopant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... thermal spray technology. In recent years, thermal spray processing increasingly has been used to support thin-film processes involved in the fabrication of semiconductor electronics and other related materials. The most notable examples of these applications are sputtering targets (source material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... showing the silicon die, bonding pad, and the external and inner leads. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 7 A “fish-bone” diagram showing the causes of tarnishing of leads. Fig. 2 Generic process flow of a semiconductor device. Key areas where corrosion could occur are shown. PMC refers to post...
Book Chapter

By Koji Kato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Materials , J. JSLE , Vol 24 ( No. 10 ), 1979 , p 631 – 636 48. Doi T.K. , Ultra-Precision Polishing/CMP Technology in the Fabrication Process of Next Generation Semiconductors and Its Application , J. Jap. Soc. Trib. , Vol 42 ( No. 10 ), 1997 , p 1125 – 1134 49. Karaki-Doi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... forms of these requirements have been present throughout this century, the development of the photomultiplier, the laser, and the desktop computer have greatly enhanced the use of this technique to the point that it is now routinely used as a metrology tool in semiconductor wafer manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... tons/yr). Except for a brief upsurge in this demand during 1969, there has been a general decline in this application of germanium since the early 1960s. The use of germanium as a semiconductor substrate deserves special mention. In this application, single-crystal wafers of germanium are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that may be toxic, pyrophoric, or flammable. Various cleaning systems are available, such as scrubbing systems, particle filters, and burn boxes. The semiconductor wafer fabrication industry uses a variety of corrosive, toxic, pyrophoric, and flammable chemicals. In order to control pollution by toxic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... insulators, automotive components, semiconductor-wafer fabrication components, precision measurement components, plasma etch components, bushings, and wire bonding capillaries Zirconia in ball valves, wire-manufacturing components, can tooling, deep-well components, thermal barriers, and thermal shock...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Tubular SOFCs, the design most intensively studied, offer the potential for less complex gas manifolding but with more complex cell fabrication. The SOFC relies on transport of oxygen ions through a dense ceramic electrolyte. In operation, oxygen (in air) is fed to the cathode (porous perovskite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... graphite) Trays for silicon-wafer handling (pyrolytic graphite) Heating elements for high-temperature furnaces (pyrolytic graphite) Aircraft disk brakes (carbon-carbon) Re-entry heat shields, rocket nozzles, and other aerospace components (carbon-carbon) High-temperature turbine blades and components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... used in cutting tools. A relatively new application of tantalum is for diffusion barrier layers between silicon semiconductor wafers and copper conductors in integrated circuits. Diffusion barriers are typically 2 to 3 nm thick and are deposited by magnetron sputtering using either PM or ingot...