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semiconductor memory

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Published: 31 October 2011
programmable read-only memory complementary metal oxide semiconductor device is shown. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and contributed to the volumetric improvements beyond those that would have been possible with just the magnetic core and semiconductor chip technologies which are basically planar, two dimensional. Fig. 4 Memory density trends. Source: Ref 5 At the same time, the trend is often toward increasing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... devices. Also undergoing rapid development are diamond insulating films as well as ferroelectric thin films for computer memory. BaTiO 3 -based compounds, which exhibit high dielectric constants and are formulated to satisfy specified capacitive and temperature characteristics (NPO, Z5U, X7R, etc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... in defense applications, because they can send information about five times faster, withstand more radiation, and operate at higher temperatures than comparable silicon-base integrated circuits. Optoelectronic Devices An LED is a semiconductor that emits light when an electric current is passed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the vapor-phase growth techniques applied to the epitaxial deposition of semiconductor films and discusses the fundamental processes involved in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It reviews the thermodynamics that determine the driving force behind...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... or reactive sputtering techniques and nontoxic glasses. Considerable attention was directed to glasses of the chalcogenide family because of their two-state, or switching, behavior. Initial expectations were for the development of computer memory systems based on this unusual electrical behavior. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... properties germanium germanium applications germanium compounds germanium specifications optical properties semiconductor thermal properties toxicology GERMANIUM (Ge) is a semiconducting metalloid element found in Group IV A and period 4 of the periodic table. Although it looks like a metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and their cost advantage also have attracted the attention of the thin-film (PVD and CVD) community toward thermal spray technology. In recent years, thermal spray processing increasingly has been used to support thin-film processes involved in the fabrication of semiconductor electronics and other related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... generally been relegated to flat, planar surfaces. Aerosol jetting and microdispensing have been the dominant processes used to selectively deposit inks onto a variety of surfaces. These inks can have functions including behaving as conductors, dielectrics, or even semiconductors ( Ref 2 , 3...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the emitted x-ray beam is analyzed electronically, photon by photon ( Fig. 5 ). The x-ray beam is directly into a semiconductor device (a lithium-drifted silicon crystal). As each x-ray photon enters the detector crystal, it creates numerous electron-hole pairs as it expends its energy interacting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and for inductors in filters, and microwave ferrites for microwave devices. In recent years, due to increasing use of semiconductors for computer memories, square-loop ferrites have decreased in importance. Microstructure and composition have much stronger influences on the magnetic properties of ferrites than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... a camera with an image sensor such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, receives light reflected off an object of interest through its lens and converts this light into a digital signal. A computer, embedded-system, or microcomputer further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is replacing photographic film in laboratory use. Digitized images are efficiently stored in computer memory and can be processed and analyzed to extract quantitative information. Printers are approaching film quality and allow low-cost image output. The move from traditional photographic film imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... interactively in three dimensions or programmatically using ParaView's batch processing capabilities. The software was developed to analyze extremely large datasets using distributed memory computing resources. It can be run on supercomputers to analyze datasets of terascale as well as on laptops for smaller...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... arrows). STEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy; DF, dark field; BF, bright field Another common method for BE detection in this geometry is using semiconductor-based solid-state detectors, which are often segmented so the BE signal to different regions of the detector can be isolated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... sections. Ion Implantation Surface modification by ion implantation is a technique that was derived from the semiconductor industry. Specimens for corrosion research were initially prepared by using high-energy research instrumentation or commercial semiconductor implanters. Equipment for surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specialized configurations for narrow applications, such as neural mapping in biology ( Ref 1 ), and within the semiconductor industry ( Ref 2 ), such as metrology, mask repair, and circuit edit. Some instruments have the FIB at a 90┬░ angle relative to the SEM. In some cases, the FIB is vertical and the SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to reveal grain boundaries on unetched samples and domain boundaries in ferromagnetic alloys; and the use of voltage contrast, electron beam-induced currents, and cathodoluminescence for the characterization and failure analysis of semiconductor devices. The article compares the features of SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the surface chemistry and interactions of solid surfaces of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, organic materials, and biomaterials. The techniques use electrons, x-rays, and ions as the probing sources, and the surface chemical information is derived from analysis of electrons and ions emitted from the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in 1924. Improvements in the gas x-ray detector by Geiger and Mueller in 1928 eventually led to the design of the first commercial wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer by Friedman and Birks in 1948. More recently, other detectors, such as the germanium and the lithium-doped silicon semiconductor...