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semiconductor films

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the vapor-phase growth techniques applied to the epitaxial deposition of semiconductor films and discusses the fundamental processes involved in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It reviews the thermodynamics that determine the driving force behind...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... affect the electrical conductivity and electromigration in metallic films, and carrier mobility and lifetime in semiconductor materials. Generally, high-defect concentrations result in poor electromigration properties. Lattice defects have been shown to be important to the properties of the high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... fluorescence spectroscopy at glancing incidence angle ( Ref 7 ) with high sensitivity. Different chemical species can be observed. For example, the detection of residues after etching of a silicon surface with a (CHF 3 + O 2 ) plasma in semiconductor fabrication is enabled by the carbon 1 s XPS spectrum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... are often deposited on low-expansivity semiconductor substrates and where service temperatures vary by several hundred degrees Celsius. Similar conditions may prevail when thin films are deposited on bulk materials for the purpose of providing protective coatings. The mechanical behavior of a given...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... at a low angle (5–20°). For metals and semiconductors, the electropolishing route is preferred, whereas for ceramic materials, ion beam milling is usually necessary. Depending on whether the area of interest in the coating is near the substrate interface or further out in the film, thinning of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the majority of the microelectronics industry. This section also considers germanium, gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the various epitaxial thin film semiconductors that can be grown on single-crystal wafer substrates. These materials are characterized first by their single-crystal nature and lack of...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... between a film and substrate (for example, silver on steel for mirrors, silver on beryllium for diffusion bonding) ( Ref 65 ) Electrical conductive layers (aluminum, silver, and gold) on plastics and semiconductors Low-shear solid film lubricants (for example, silver and gold) ( Ref 107 ) Wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Schematic of a remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor for depositing compound semiconductor films. TMG, trimethylgallium. Source: Ref 23 Hybrid PECVD systems are a combination of the direct and remote PECVD systems. One example of such a system is a reactor designed for the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... available for use on substrates that are up to 120 mm (4.7 in.) in diameter. Some of these units are used for semiconductor applications, as well as for nonelectronic applications, such as the deposition of molybdenum disulfide films for friction reduction. In the case of sputter deposition, maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... determining the thickness of a film is that the light must be able to reach the bottom of the film and interact with the underlying layer. Transparent materials such as most oxides qualify throughout the above-mentioned thickness range up to a few micrometers. Many semiconductors are nearly transparent and...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... successfully to deposit films of a great variety of materials for semiconductor, wear-resistant, optical, and other coating applications ( Ref 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 ). The primary advantages of triode sputtering are: Microstructural changes similar to those induced by temperature and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... silicon metal. (Eq 1) SiO 2 + 2 C → > 1420   ° C Si + 2 CO While a portion of the silicon metal is used directly in applications such as semiconductor chips or photovoltaic cells, the majority is converted into organo-substituted chlorosilane monomers via reaction with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... used in atomic and nuclear physics to check targets for impurities, thickness, and composition, but only since the late 1960s has ion beam analysis taken hold. This has been due to the need for rapid growth of planar technology in semiconductors and the availability of compatible data processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... semiconductors. The chemical bonding between zirconium and oxygen is very strong at 6.6 eV per equivalent. The transport of current through the film becomes increasingly difficult as the film grows. It can proceed at areas such as grain boundaries and atomic defect sites. The film could become less protective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... -type semiconductor, exhibits increasing electronic conductivity with increasing temperature. As a cathode, titanium readily passes current and permits electrochemical reduction of ions in an aqueous electrolyte. On the other hand, very high resistance to anodic current flow (anodic polarization) across...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-20Zn Equipment: mild steel Anodes must be filmed. (An oxide film is deposited on the anode by plating it at a high current density.) Unfilmed anodes cause formation of stannite (Cu 2 FeSnS 4 ), which inhibits plating. Temperatures in the high end of the range increase the tin content and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Advances in semiconductor manufacturing led to the introduction of unconventional materials (reactive organometallics synthesized as a precursor compound) into the marketplace for use in the atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) process ( Ref 17 ). Atomic layer deposition is an organometallic thin-film-deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...., semiconductors, metals, nitrides, and diamond-like carbon) ( Ref 13 ). The areas of application range from electronics to biology, tribology, and optics. The list of materials successfully deposited as high-quality thin films is continuously growing. In spite of its success, the technique remains primarily a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., radiography provides a unique NDT capability of inspecting for condition and proper placement of components. Certain special devices are more satisfactorily inspected by radiography than by other methods. For instance, radiography is well suited to the inspection of semiconductor devices for cracks, broken...