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semi-coherent precipitates

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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 32 Aging sequence in 7050. (a) Initial Guinier-Preston (GP) zone formation. (b) GP zone present and formation of semi-incoherent η′. (c) Semi-incoherent η′ and formation of coherent equilibrium precipitate η. (d) Precipitation of equilibrium precipitate η. Source: Ref 57 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... aluminum alloys include: Aluminum-copper systems, with strengthening from coherent and transition precipitates prior to the formation of the equilibrium intermetallic CuAl 2 (2 xxx and 2 xx.x alloy series) Al-Cu-Mg systems, in which magnesium intensifies precipitation hardening with CuAl 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of reversion, duplex annealing, and retrogression and re-aging are included. age hardening aging alloying aluminum alloys coherent precipitates precipitate-free zones semi-coherent precipitates ternary phase diagrams AGE HARDENING (or just aging) is the final step of the entire hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... If this step is done properly, the precipitates can result in significant hardening of the alloy. In some cases, the precipitates are even coherent with the crystal matrix of the parent metal (see also the article “Principles of Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys” in this Volume). Although the aging process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...% Co (or up to 2.2% Ni). They are solution heat treated in the range 760 to 955 °C (1400 to 1750 °F) and age hardened to produce the beryllium-rich coherent precipitates when aged in the range 260 to 565 °C (500 to 1050 °F), the specific temperature being chosen for the particular alloy and desired...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... in each is similar and well understood. Hardening occurs from the precipitation of a coherent second phase that strains the crystal lattice, thus strengthening the alloy by impeding the motion of dislocations. The precipitates are produced by the step-process of a solution treatment (to create...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... aging subsequent to quenching, the nitrogen dissolved at the nitriding temperature precipitates as iron nitrides in the diffusion zone, or, in the case of steel containing alloying elements with affinity for nitrogen, as aluminum and chromium, alloying element nitrides precipitate during nitriding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... scattering is more probable in high-atomic-number materials at low beam energy. Elastic scattering is responsible for both electron diffraction (thin foils) and the generation of BEs (bulk samples in SEM and thin specimens in TEM). Coherent elastic scattering of electrons in the forward direction produces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Hence, for any phase contrast to be resolvable by the camera system, an extremely high degree of transversal coherence of the incident wave-field is required, corresponding to at least 10 5 λ. Since a high-photon flux also must be maintained at the sample to allow for real-time studies, conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... steels. heat treatment martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels material selection microstructure semi-austenitic precipitation-hardening steels solidification PRECIPITATION-HARDENING (PH) STAINLESS STEELS are iron-chromium-nickel alloys with corrosion resistance superior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The newer 7 xxx alloys contain zirconium, which forms coherent Al 3 Zr dispersoids, while most of the older 7 xxx alloys contain Al 12 Mg 2 Cr dispersoids, which exhibit incoherent interfaces. The incoherent interfaces serve to nucleate MgZn 2 precipitates during the quench, so alloys containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... the opposing forces of a pair of rolling mill rolls to form a continuous green strip. The green strip is further densified and strengthened by sintering and rerolling. The critical step in the process is the formation of a coherent green strip having sufficiently high green strength and green density. A high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of homogeneous (coherent or semi coherent) precipitation for strengthening by age hardening at room temperature or moderately elevated temperatures. In addition, another purpose of quenching is to maintain a certain minimum number of vacant lattice sites to assist in promoting the low-temperature diffusion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with adverse effects on castability and eutectic structure. Antimony will chemically combine with and precipitate the common modifiers sodium and strontium; therefore, antimony has the potential to act as a modification poisoner if it enters the scrap recycling stream. Chemical analysis of antimony content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... amounts result in a microstructure that is not fully martensitic. Precipitation-Hardenable (PH) Stainless Steels Precipitation-hardenable (PH) stainless steels are chromium-nickel grades that can be hardened by an aging treatment. These grades are classified as austenitic (such as S66286), semi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with an “impurity” atom increases the load required to permit dislocation movement. Precipitation hardening is effected by dislocations being pinned by coherent or incoherent precipitates. For the maximum precipitation hardening effect, a fine distribution of coherent precipitates is required. For very low ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... formation, transport, collisions, and removal or entrapment in the molten metal during upstream refining processes is the next crucial step. Thermodynamic reactions to quantify the precipitates that form in these multicomponent alloy systems can be predicted by simultaneous solution of chemical equilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... stress concentration at the surface. Second-phase particles, such as inclusions and precipitates, have elastic properties different from those of the matrix and generally also serve as stress concentrators. Argon ( Ref 2 ) showed very instructively that the effect of second-phase particles at the free...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article discusses the composition, characteristics, and properties of the five groups of wrought stainless steels: martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., equiaxed alpha and secondary (lamellar) alpha in alpha/beta titanium alloys during cooling following heat treatment in the alpha+beta phase field Precipitation of acicular/lamellar alpha in alpha/beta and near-beta alloys following beta solution treatment The following discussion focuses...