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secondary steelmaking practices

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents a detailed account on the process flow, composition, alternative sources, and the advancement of ironmaking, steelmaking and secondary steelmaking practices. Some steels, such as bearing steels, heat-resistant steels, ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for deoxidation, decarburization, and adjustment of chemical composition, including gases. Refining times in the furnace can often be shortened and production rates increased with an efficient secondary steelmaking practice. Ladle metallurgy also allows the control of teeming temperature, especially required...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hole, water-cooling system, preheat and furnace scrap burners, and ladles. The article describes the acid and basic steelmaking practices. It discusses the raw materials used, oxidation process, methods of heat reduction, and deoxidation process in the practices. The article provides a discussion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article describes ironmaking and steelmaking practices (melt or liquid processing, including hot metal desulfurization) and discusses the evolution of these processes and their effects on steel properties. The physical chemistry of steelmaking may appear deceptively simple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... shunt currents, thereby allowing shorter interweld spacings to be used. However, if two or more circuits are fed from a common transformer secondary winding, the current in each circuit will not be equal unless the impedances of each circuit are identical. This is often difficult to achieve in practice...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel production consumes about 75% of the purchased iron and steel scrap recycled, with 24% going to iron and steel foundries. The remaining 1% returns as ferroalloys and other products. Secondary steel scrap is now the most economic “raw material” available to steelmakers, accounting for about 45...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... additional steps, including secondary nickel refining, degreasing, and separation of metallurgical wastes. iron scrap scrap demand scrap processor scrap recycling industry stainless steel scrap superalloy scrap metal recycling RECYCLING can be simply defined as the use of a material over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... method of detecting unmelted electrodes or shelf conditions. The conversion practice (primary and secondary deformation) plays an important role in producing a product with a sound center condition. The conversion practice must impart sufficient homogenization to reduce or eliminate the detrimental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... the weld zone. (b, c) Direct weld with conduction through a platen A series of direct spot welds also can be done when the two electrodes are connected to opposite ends of the transformer secondary but both contact the same workpiece ( Fig. 6 ). Two welds are formed simultaneously with the same weld...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... material. This article outlines the advantages of steel continuous casting, along with its developments and challenges for improvement. It provides a general description of the continuous casting process and the design and layout of a continuous casting steelmaking facility. It reviews process enhancements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Brick C 987 Practice for Vapor Attack on Refractories for Furnace Superstructures C 1223 Test Method for Testing of Glass Exudation from AZS Fusion-Cast Refractories Source: Ref 8 Corrosion of Steelmaking Refractories The steelmaking industry is a major refractory user, consuming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... to others, who in time developed an independent secondary industry. As both industries grew, their objectives changed. The primary producers started to use scrap of all forms and origins, and the secondary producers began producing more sophisticated end products, thus reducing the originally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Notch toughness is an indication of the capacity of a steel to absorb energy when a stress concentrator or notch is present. The notch toughness of a steel product is the result of a number of interactive effects, including composition, deoxidation and steelmaking practices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... require hyperbolic rods, so there is a practical compromise in using simple rods between manufacturability and efficiency losses. Typical performance parameters are listed in the analyzer comparison table at the end of this section. Advantages of quadrupole mass filters compared with other analyzers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... A semantic distinction can be made between alloying elements and residual elements; the latter are not intentionally added to the steel, but result from the raw materials and steelmaking practices used to produce the steel. Any particular element can be either alloying or residual. For example, some nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., their practical benefit to improving casting processes is growing. Accurate calculation of fluid velocities, temperature, microstructure, and stress evolution is just the first step. Achieving tangible improvements to casting processes requires the accurate prediction of actual casting defects and product...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... will be absorbed into the slag ( Ref 1 ). With good steelmaking and steel pouring practices, bottom pouring has been able to achieve steel cleanliness levels rivaling remelt quality. The grade of steel, pouring rate (or rate of rise in the mold), and flux properties must be carefully matched to achieve...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... have numerical problems with the application of the liquid hydrostatic pressure onto the new internal boundary of the solidified region. However, this simple strategy is very convenient for many practical problems, especially when the solidification front is stationary, such as the primary cooling...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for stainless and alloy steel refining, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen are injected into the steel bath through submerged, side-mounted tuyeres (See Fig. 16 in the article “Steelmaking Practices and Their Influence on Properties” in this Handbook). This causes a shift in the decarburization thermodynamics, which...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... operation has been described in the article “Steelmaking Practices and Their Influence on Properties” in this Handbook. In short, it consists of continuously charging the solid material from the top and blowing hot air from the bottom, causing a counter current flow of solid and gas where heat...