1-20 of 206 Search Results for

second law of thermodynamics

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Thermodynamic descriptions have become available for a large number of alloy systems and allow the calculation of the phase diagrams of multicomponent alloys. This article begins with a discussion on three laws of thermodynamics: the Law of Conservation of Energy, the Second Law of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of the thermodynamic equations and property relations of the first and second laws of thermodynamics that are applicable to closed-system consisting of several homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. thermodynamics thermodynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the reaction product (oxide, sulfide, etc.). The fundamental criterion, which allows for the evaluation of whether, at a given temperature and oxidant gas pressure, the oxidation process of a determined metal may occur, is the sign of the Gibbs energy change, Δ G ( Ref 4 , 5 ). The Second Law of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... second it represents the Henryan activity (used with the 1 mass% standard state, i.e., at 25 °C and 1 atm). For solute concentration in terms of mass%, up to several percent of solute content, in a first approximation it can be assumed that log f i increases or decreases linearly with higher...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the components, and G i ( T ) is the Gibbs energy of the pure component. The second term in Eq 3 , G ideal , is the contribution from the configurational entropy from atoms substituting for each other on equivalent sites in a random mixture. In substitutional solutions, such as liquid or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Raoult's law standard state: (Eq 10) γ = 1  when  a = X In the case of an electrochemical cell, using Eq 1 as an example, where the cell emf is directly related to the activity of AgCl, the activity of the second component, NaCl, can then be calculated by the Gibbs-Duhem equation, which at...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) J = − k m C i B This assumption has been used to describe the high-temperature gasification of coke ( Ref 16 ). The second assumption is that equilibrium between the two phases is established at the reaction interface. In this case, Eq 30 is written as: (Eq 32) J = k m...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... addressed in sections on thermodynamics in this article. The first is the calculation of solubility lines, relevant to the construction of phase diagrams, and the second is the calculation of the activity of various components, which allows for the determination of probability of formation and relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... distribution. The second section covers polymer powder-bed sintering/ fusion, discussing the different levels of scale used to address modeling and the impact of process settings: thermodynamics at the powder-bed surface, consolidation of adjacent particles in the fusion process, and fusion and molecular-level...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... mainly in the subgrain boundaries. Therefore, the various factors that influence the mobility of the high-angle boundary or the driving force for its migration will influence the kinetics of recrystallization. For example, impurities, solutes, or fine second-phase particles will inhibit boundary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... F w M where I corr is expressed in amps; t is the time of exposure to the corrosive environment (seconds); nF is the number of coulombs (C) required to convert 1 mol of material to corrosion product; n is the number of electrons transferred or liberated in the oxidation reaction; F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... grain size, stoichiometry, grain-boundary design, microalloying, and second-phase incorporation, to increase the number of slip and to hence confer improvement of K Ic and fracture strain. This article reviews the progress that has been made in understanding the corrosion behavior of intermetallics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... depend on concentration, then Eq 8 reduces to the Fick's 1855 formula. The equation of mass conservation ( Eq 9 ) reduces to Fick's second law: (Eq 10) ∂ c i ∂ t = − D i ∂ 2 C i ∂ x 2 As an example of the Fickian diffusion, the diffusion of oxygen into a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... constitutive laws for the inelasticity are available. The second category of phenomena pertains to the fracture process zone (FPZ). The FPZ represents the region directly ahead of the crack within which the strains become highly localized and lead to the initiation and propagation of a macroscopic crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., heat flows in the direction of the temperature drop (from the higher temperature region to the lower temperature region). Heat convection is a second heat transfer mode present in induction applications. It also has a considerable effect on processes associated with induction heating, heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... structure has been developed ( Ref 6 , Ref 7 , Ref 8 , Ref 9 , Ref 10 ) and applied to ingot solidification ( Ref 11 , Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 , Ref 15 ). This second approach is referred to as indirect modeling of the grain structure. The goal is to predict the average grain size and volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the integration of thermodynamic modeling, mobility database, and phase-transformation crystallography into phase-field modeling and its combination with transformation texture modeling to predict phase equilibrium, phase transformation, microstructure evolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Schillé J.P. , Proc. Second International Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering in Automotive Applications , June 20–22, 2005 ( Riva del Garda, Italy ) 109. Guo Z. , Saunders N. , Miodownik A.P. , and Schillé J.P. , Mater. Sci. Eng. A , Vol 499 , 2009 , p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... concentration of carbon diffusing into a metal (for example, a steel) changes with time and depth into the metal. Fick's second law describes this change under isothermal conditions as: (Eq 15) ∂ C ∂ t = ∂ ∂ x ( D ∂ C ∂ x ) The diffusion coefficient is assumed to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... a solid is controlled by diffusion, in which atoms diffuse from the parent phase across the phase boundary and into the growing second-phase particles. Because this is a diffusion-controlled process, the growth rate, G ˙ , is determined by temperature: (Eq 14) G ˙ = C e − Q...