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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article contains a galvanic series chart that shows the electrochemical voltage ranges of metals and alloys in flowing seawater. Dark boxes in the chart indicate the active behavior of active-passive alloys. galvanic series chart electrochemical voltage Fig. 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article is a guide that rates the compatibility of dissimilar structural materials joined together for service in seawater, marine atmosphere, or industrial atmosphere. It contains a table that indicates the material code and most generally effective surface treatment typically...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... series of metals and alloys valid for dilute aqueous solutions, such as seawater and weak acids. It provides useful information on the effects of alloy compositions, selection for specific environments, and atmospheric corrosion of selected copper alloys. The article also tabulates the corrosion ratings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the corrosion resistance of aluminum and aluminum alloys in various environments, such as in natural atmospheres, fresh waters, seawater, and soils, and when exposed to chemicals and their solutions and foods. It describes the forms of corrosion of aluminum and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... SEAWATER is a relatively uniform saline solution consisting predominantly of sodium and magnesium chlorides dissolved in water. Although many other soluble minerals are present in very small quantities, both the individual and cumulative effects of these minerals are so greatly overshadowed by the effect...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... titanium alloy UNALLOYED TITANIUM is highly resistant to corrosion by many natural environments, including seawater, body fluids, and fruit and vegetable juices. Titanium is used extensively for handling salt solutions (including chlorides, hypochlorides, sulfates, and sulfides), wet chlorine gas, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... often used in marine environments involving direct contact with seawater. Applications include ship construction and offshore drilling structures and equipment. The atmospheric corrosion resistance of low-alloy steels is a function of the specific environment and steel composition. The effects of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... deposition of solid particles such as dust, soil, and corrosion products. Magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) in seawater is a prime factor for water film formation because of its deliquescent nature. The relative humidity (RH) in equilibrium with solid MgCl 2 is 33%, meaning that a metal surface contaminated with...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... +0.199 … Ag/AgCl/1 M KCl +0.235 … +0.25 Ag/AgCl/0.6 M Cl − (seawater) +0.25 … … Ag/AgCl/0.1 M Cl − +0.288 … +0.22 Hg/Hg 2 Cl 2 /sat'd KCl (SCE) +0.241 +0.244 +0.22 Hg/Hg 2 Cl 2 /1 M KCl +0.280 +0.283 +0.59 Hg/Hg 2 Cl 2 /0.1 M KCl +0.334 +0.336 +0.79 Cu...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... atmospheric exposure, such as roofing, hardware, building fronts, grillework, handrails, lock bodies, doorknobs, and kick plates Freshwater supply lines and plumbing fittings requiring resistance to corrosion by various types of waters and soils Freshwater and seawater marine applications—supply lines...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... acceptable. Waters can vary from extremely pure to chemically treated water to highly concentrated chloride solutions, such as brackish water or seawater, further concentrated by recycling. This chloride content poses the danger of pitting or crevice attack of stainless steels. When the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., with more than 4200 testpieces tested in various atmospheric and seawater immersion environments ( Ref 16 ). Coatings were wire flame-sprayed zinc and aluminum with a thickness range from 80 to 460 μm (3 to 18 mils), with and without sealing. The sealants included wash primer, aluminum vinyl, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... product forms. Higher molybdenum-content duplex alloys, such as SAF 2507 and Zeron 100 (UNS S32750 and S32760, respectively), have been developed for seawater service. Recently, several lower-molybdenum, nitrogen-enhanced duplex stainless steels have been introduced. They offer the same high resistance to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... between titanium and liquid oxygen or between titanium and red fuming nitric acid. Though highly reactive, titanium is extremely resistant to corrosion in many aggressive environments. For example, it is highly resistant to seawater and to nitric acid. Resistance to general corrosion has been ascribed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... excessive hydrogen absorption ( Ref 47 , Ref 48 , Ref 49 ). In near-neutral electrolytes such as seawater, active metals such as zinc, aluminum, and, especially, magnesium can induce enhanced hydrogen uptake and embrittlement when coupled to titanium above approximately 75 to 80 °C (165 to 175 °F) ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Blended chlorobutyl  Slurry piping Blended chlorobutyl 60 Shore A hardness natural rubber Seawater cooling water piping Soft natural rubber Neoprene Metal finishing industry  Steel mill pickle lines Semihard natural rubber Three-ply linings  Nickel plating Semihard natural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... As with nickel, small additions of chromium are used to refine graphite and matrix microstructures. These refinements enhance the corrosion resistance of cast irons in seawater and weak acids. Chromium additions of 15 to 35% improve the corrosion resistance of cast irons to oxidizing acids, such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Compounded by difficult access, poor visibility, and complex geometries, including edges, corrosion in ballast tanks can be a severe issue that potentially results in loss of ship integrity. Note once again that because of the harsh environment, seawater ballast tanks corrode faster than their freshwater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... based on the properties required for a particular application. For example, when strength is required, steel is frequently chosen as the substrate. The cladding metal is chosen for its corrosion resistance in a particular environment, such as seawater, sour gas, high temperature, and automotive. The...