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seam formation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... affecting die life possible in normal production. Fig. 18 Distribution of die life of 72 dies used for threading low-carbon steel bolts in a 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) boltmaker machine The form of the thread affects the radial die load, seam formation, surface finish, and thread...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... titanium alloys, when exposed to a corrosive environment under stress, is also reviewed. The final section of the article describes and shows fractographs that illustrate the influence of metallurgical discontinuities such as laps, seams, cold shuts, porosity, inclusions, segregation, and unfavorable grain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... extensions on the surfaces to be seam welded can be passed over by cutting notches in the electrode wheels. Fig. 5 Upper electrode wheels used to avoid interference with a sidewall. (a) Small-diameter wheel. (b) Canted, large-diameter wheel The formation of a projection weld nugget, which...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture of metals, including laps, seams, cold shuts, cracks, inclusions, porosity, fatigue, and stress corrosion cracking. failure analysis fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination stress corrosion cracking surface defects visual examination EXAMINATION of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of flaws encountered in the inspection of steel bars, including porosity, inclusions, scabs, cracks, seams, and laps. Inspection methods, such as magnetic-particle inspection. liquid penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and electromagnetic inspection, of steel bars are also described. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... quenchant. Other sources of failure most commonly observed following the quenching process are component design, heating, improper steel composition, and stress risers (small areas of local increase in stress intensity), such as laps and seams, resulting from prior machining. Metallurgical-related factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...” in this Volume. Table 16 Melting characteristics and applications of tin-lead solders Composition, % Temperature Uses Solidus Liquidus Tin Lead °C °F °C °F 2 98 270 518 312 594 Side seams for can manufacturing 5 95 270 518 312 594 Coating and joining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... article “Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers for Nondestructive Evaluation” in this Volume. The most widely applied technique is to monitor the transmission along a plate between two probes with a fixed spacing. Another implementation, for example, is inspection of a spot or seam weld between two...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Thickness G (e) G (e) G (e) G (e) U G (e) Laminations U U U U U U Voids G G G G G G Bar and tube Seams P P P P P P Pipe G G G G F F Cupping G G G G F F Inclusions F F F F F F Castings Cold shuts G G G G G G Surface cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fatigue crack grew slowly, and beach marks became obscured by oxide. ∼3× Fig. 261 Fatigue-fracture surface of a suspension spring of AISI 10B62 steel wire with a hardness of 460 HB. Note the fine seam (at arrow), which is the fatigue-crack origin. 2× Fig. 262 Fatigue-fractured valve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... pressed together at a constant force while the current is applied ( Fig.b 6 ). Interfacial heating results in the bond formation. Resistance seam welding was derived from traditional spot welding, where two electrode wheels roll traverse to the seam and intermittently apply currents to produce a series of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... … X X … X X X … X … X Weld cracks (below surface) … … … X … … X X … X … X Sanding marks X … … … … … … … … … … … Weld open seam (full) X … … X … X X X … X … X Weld open seam (partial) … … … X … … X X … X … X Circumferential...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (above the audible range). Mechanical vibrations are transmitted through a coupling system to the welding tip and into the workpieces. The tip vibrates laterally, essentially parallel to the weld interface, while static force is applied perpendicular to the interface. Spot welding and continuous seam...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... inherent disadvantages. Among these is the possibility of movement, which would cause dimensional variation in the casting. Also, at every junction of the loose pieces in the pattern or core box, and at joints between mold and core sections, there is a possibility of forming seams or fins, which would have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... visible at top center. These surface marks are considered to be areas of local stress concentrations, which led to fatigue cracking. 10× Fracture of low-carbon steel spring due to a lap. The defect was most likely introduced during rolling of the wire rod. Unlike seams, penetration of a lap below...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... applied to the surface using rollers and stitchers to press out air pockets and to press the sheet into the adhesive. Finally, the applied rubber must be cured or vulcanized by steam in an autoclave, by heating with exhaust steam, or by a chemical curing agent applied to the rubber surface. The seams...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... μin.). Tinplate is produced in thicknesses from 0.15 to 0.60 mm (0.006 to 0.024 in.). More than 90% of world production of tinplate is used for containers (tin cans). Traditional tinplate cans are made of three pieces of tin-coated steel: two ends and a body with a soldered side seam. Innovations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... voids or seams at the junction where two streams met. Crystal defects depend on the temperature gradient across the solidification front. Further insight can be gained from direct modeling of the microstructure ( Ref 40 ) and molecular dynamics or quantum-mechanics models of dislocations and other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... top layer offers any abrasion resistance Generally requires “closed skive” seams Common uses of three-ply linings are: Tanks that require brick lining, such as acid pickling tanks Phosphoric acid evaporators Hydrochloric acid storage tanks where the solution contains traces of...