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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... reviews tests, such as scratch test and in vitro fretting corrosion test, developed to investigate the aspects of mechanically assisted corrosion of metallic biomaterials. cobalt-base biomedical alloys electrochemical behavior in vitro fretting corrosion test iron-base biomedical alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-scanning, and scratch tests. After a discussion on gear scuffing, information on the material-dependent adhesive wear and factors preventing adhesive wear is provided. adhesive wear coefficient of friction galling metal sliding contacts scoring scuffing seizure scratch tests twist compression...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... interpreted as structural elements. A properly prepared specimen has the following characteristics: Deformation induced by sectioning, grinding, and polishing is removed or shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches are removed; fine polishing scratches are tolerated in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the distortions of the image of a cross on a patterned screen. This test method does not work for other surface geometries. Microscopic surface irregularities are usually measured by a microscope or a profilometer. They tend to fall into three categories: scratches, digs (or pits), and a mottled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... buffing. In general, polishing permits more aggressive abrading action than buffing. It has greater capability to modify the shape of a component and has greater definition of scratches. Buffing achieves finer finishes, has greater flexibility, and follows the contours of components. Polishing and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., abrasion; low-stress, or scratching, abrasion; and solid-particle erosion. In addition to the aforementioned classification scheme, the term two- and three-body abrasive wear , that is, components of sliding abrasion, has also been used to discriminate between abrasion modes. As...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface artifacts, such as surface scratches, and for studying grain structures. The incident light is supplied through the outside of the lens and is reflected back through the objective, producing a dark background with bright features. Oblique illumination is useful for low-magnification analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... sequence of operations for scratch brushing of copper alloy parts Part Finish desired Abrasive Type of wheel Size of wheel Speed, rev/min mm in. Black fuse body, yellow brass (a) Dull, smooth, black None Tampico 80 diam by 75 thick, 5 rows wide 7 diam by 3 thick, 5 rows wide 1200...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coatings are, however, subject to damage from environmental elements such as acid rain, UV degradation, high relative humidity and temperatures, stone chipping, and abrasive scratching of the coating surface. Typically, harder, more highly crosslinked films may exhibit improved scratch resistance, but...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., such as a wheel or belt. Polishing operations usually follow grinding and precede buffing. In general, polishing permits more aggressive abrading action than buffing. It has greater capability to modify the shape of a component and has greater definition of scratches. Buffing achieves finer finishes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metal, inducing large plastic deformations followed by considerable loss of material by fracture processes such as scratching. Abrasion can also be produced by hard/sharp protuberances such as those on a metal file. Impact by hard substances can produce high-stress or gouging abrasion. Table 1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... silica on a medium-nap cloth using light pressure until the surface is bright and scratch-free. In addition, because of the low melting points of lead and lead alloys, deformation of the specimen in metallographic preparation can be sufficient to cause heating and recrystallization. Therefore, in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 6 to 20 vol% H 2 SO 4 and 0.5 to 1.0 vol% HF at room temperature is recommended. This etch is fast and has the advantage that it is a leveling etch, which removes scratches and dings rather than deepening them. A final light etch using 45 vol% HNO 3 -1 vol% HF is required to remove the smut caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Research by U.R. Evans and later by J.E.O. Mayne at the University of Cambridge in the 1930s and early 1940s established that high concentrations of zinc dust in paint would prevent rusting at a scratch in the paint film and provide galvanic protection to steel ( Ref 2 ). At approximately the same time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... scratches on the hard metallic counterface upon the wear of the polyethylene was recognized. It had previously been shown ( Ref 61 ) that for isotropic counterface roughness, the relationship between the wear factor ( k ) and the roughness average ( R a ) of the hard counterface was given approximately by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; expensive; detection of cracks can be difficult unless perpendicular to x-ray film. Pipeline welds for penetration, inclusions, and voids; internal defects in castings Visual optical Surface characteristics such as finish, scratches, cracks, or color; strain in transparent materials; corrosion Often...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The soft and friable nature of the graphite phase, in combination with the relatively hard matrix, presents difficulties during preparation not normally experienced with other ferrous metals. Techniques that will promote a scratch-free and distortion-free surface for the matrix may not retain the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... nitriding, for example, in the case of scratch testing ( Fig. 10 ). Fig. 10 Influence of treatment condition state on critical loads for layer breakthrough in scratch testing (according to EN 1071-3) and surface hardness (HV 5 ) of aluminum alloy 5083 and spray-formed alloy DISPAL S270. T N = 470...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Nanotechnology and smart-coating technologies have been reported to show great promise for improved performance in a number of critical areas: Smart-coatings and nanotechnology research areas Cleanability/graffiti resistance Antifouling Damage or scratch resistance Antibacterial Self-repairing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of extender. Light pressure is preferred. This is usually accomplished by polishing sequentially on flat wheels with successively finer polishing compound. At each polishing level, the abrasion scratches of the prior step are removed by polishing normal to the prior direction. Care must be taken to...