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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Comparison of indentation hardness <italic>H</italic> and scratch hardness <italic>H</italic><sub>S</sub> for a range of materials Table 1 Comparison of indentation hardness H and scratch hardness H S for a range of materials Material H H S H S / H MPa ksi MPa ksi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... microstructure Fig. 6 Typical current transient that results during an 80 μm scratch test with a diamond stylus (radius of 20 μm, or 0.8 mil) on a Co-Cr-Mo surface in phosphate buffered saline potentiostatically held at a passivating potential (0 mV SCE) and loaded with a 1.5 GPa contact stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., milliradians. Source: Ref 76 Fig. 2 Single scratch, using a 20 μm conical diamond stylus under a 100 g load, on a high-Cr white cast iron. Notice the matrix transformation to martensite and the cracking of the carbides. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 12 Schematic diagram for slurry wear apparatus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of test methods that have been developed for specific applications. These include dynamic, or "rebound," hardness tests using a Leeb tester or a Scleroscope; static indentation tests on rubber or plastic products using the durometer or IRHD testers; scratch hardness tests; and ultrasonic microindentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... environment; and mechanical disruptions or depassivation such as scratching, abrading, or fretting. Titanium alloys can be classified into three primary groups such as titanium alloys with hexagonal close-packed crystallographic structure; beta titanium alloys with body-centered cubic crystallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... for active surface. The protection potential is found as E 3 &lt; E prot &lt; E 2 . Source: Ref 86 Fig. 9 Potential versus time plot of scratch test illustrating a possible location of the critical potential, E c , as it relates to the induction time and the repassivation time. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...; numerous chipping artifacts are present in the oxide. (b) Specimen abraded on a fine fixed-abrasive lap; minor chipping artifacts are present in the oxide. (c) Specimen abraded on a leadfoil lap coated with 1 μm diamond paste; oxide and metal are free from chipping artifacts, but are badly scratched. (d...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are reviewed. These include scratches, fiber pull-out, matrix smears, streaks, erosion of different phases, and fiber and sample edge rounding and relief. References References 1. Hayes B.S. and Gammon L.M. , Microscopy , Composites , Vol 21 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2001...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... (up to 3% Ag) Solution A: 1 part H 2 O 2 (3%) 1 part NH 4 OH Solution B: 2 mL HF 28 mL HCl 50 mL water Solution C: 25 mL water 25 mL H 2 O 2 25 mL NH 4 OH Immerse or gently swab with solution A for 1 min to remove grinding scratches. Follow with very fine diamond on satin, 500 rpm, for 15 min...
Book Chapter

By S.C. Lim
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Adapted from Ref 34 Abstract Abstract This article describes the usefulness of wear maps and explains how to construct a proper wear map from scratch and effectively employ such a map to make important design decisions for a particular tribological situation. It discusses three categories...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... the alkaline etching and acid etching of aluminum. Alkaline etching reduces or eliminates surface scratches, nicks, extrusion die lines, and other imperfections. Acid etching can be done without heavy smut problems, particularly on aluminum die castings. Hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric, chromic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... corrosion. It reviews the tests developed to investigate the aspects of mechanically assisted corrosion of metallic biomaterials: the scratch test and the in vitro fretting corrosion test. cobalt-base biomedical alloys electrochemical behavior in vitro fretting corrosion test iron-base biomedical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of adhesive wear. It includes information on standardized galling tests, twist compression, slider-on-flat-surface, load-scanning, and scratch tests. After a discussion on gear scuffing, information on the material-dependent adhesive wear and factors preventing adhesive wear is provided. References...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and analyzing of adhesion, friction, and wear test data. It concludes with a description of devices used for testing adhesion, friction, and wear. adhesion testing friction testing scratch testing surface damage wear testing THE SURFACES OF SOLIDS play many different and important roles...
Book Chapter

By Niels Bay
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Fig. 1 Combinations of metals that can be successfully cold welded (indicated by shaded box). Source: Ref 1 Fig. 2 Bond shear strength versus surface exposure/reduction in cold roll bonding. Source: Ref 2 , 3 Fig. 3 Scratch-brushed and slightly deformed aluminum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., grinding, and polishing is removed or shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches are removed; fine polishing scratches are tolerated in routine metallographic studies. Pullout, pitting, cracking of hard particles, and smear are avoided. Relief (i.e., excessive surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... will be interpreted as structural elements. A properly prepared specimen has the following characteristics: Deformation induced by sectioning, grinding, and polishing is removed or shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches are removed; fine polishing scratches are tolerated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... solution For etching galvanneal coatings Etch for 20 seconds in Part A, flush with alcohol and etch for 10 seconds in Part B Fig. 26 Sketch showing depth of grinding scratches below the surface of a specimen Fig. 27 A histogram showing the amount of retained austenite present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... J.E. , and Ohrbom W.H. , Scratch Resistant Clearcoats Containing Surface Reactive Microparticles and Method Therefore , U.S. Patent 5,853,809 , Dec 29 , 1998 22. Sadvary R.J. , Anderson L.G. , Simpson D.A. , Hockswender T.R. , Nakajima M. , and Wilt T.F...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... showing cracking along white-etching localized shear zone Fig. 28 Scanning electron micrographs showing the three modes of abrasive wear typically found in steels: (a) low-stress scratching, (b) higher-stress gouging, and (c) impact or indentation Fig. 29 Bands of normalized wear rate...