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scratch wear testing

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... been demonstrated for this test. ASTM G 65-91, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus” ( Ref 26 ), offers four procedures for the determination of scratching abrasion resistance of metallic materials. It can also be used to test a wide variety of...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reasonably similar features. Figure 1 shows an approach to wear classification; here, wear is classified by the type of relative motion. Note that galling, scratching, scoring, and damage from the impact of a foreign body are not strictly forms of wear because material is not necessarily removed (it may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-scanning, and scratch tests. After a discussion on gear scuffing, information on the material-dependent adhesive wear and factors preventing adhesive wear is provided. adhesive wear coefficient of friction galling metal sliding contacts scoring scuffing seizure scratch tests twist compression...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The article describes testing methods such as room and high-temperature strength test methods, proof testing, fracture toughness measurement, and hardness and wear testing. It also explains methods for determining thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and emissivity of ceramics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Cracking, tears, or necking due to forming/deep drawing Laps due to thread rolling/spinning Tool marks and scratches from forming Surface tears due to poor surface preparation prior to working Residual-stress cracking due to flowforming Lüders lines due to forming strain rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-assisted corrosion. All these individual contributions are usually determined using a suitable wear tester, such as pin-on-disc, electrochemical scratching, and erosion-corrosion testers with in situ electrochemical analysis ( Ref 33 – 37 ). Using sliding wear corrosion as an example ( Ref 17 ), it is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., or they may be damaged by scratches or other wear mechanisms. Both types of defects allow the corrosive medium to contact the substrate material or the interlayers and underlayers. Depending on the materials combination, the coating material is either more noble or less noble than the substrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... crevice. Scratches on self-passivating implants that are not deep enough to restrict the mass transport of ions and cause local chemistry changes similar to those in pits and crevices usually repassivate spontaneously, unless the potential is high enough to maintain the activity. The potential below...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., but the load is in kilograms; for example, a reading obtained using a Knoop indenter and 500 g load would be expressed as HK 0.5 . Other hardness tests, such as nanoindentation hardness, Scleroscope hardness, Leeb (Equotip) hardness, and scratch hardness, can be helpful in specific applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microscopes for measuring the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished or lapped surfaces. Visual examination and photography are instrumental in any failure investigation, and other articles in this Volume also describe visual examination in more detail. During direct examination, mirrors may be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... design engineer, resistance to scratching to a mineralogist, and resistance to cutting to a machinist. Although these various definitions of hardness appear to differ significantly in character, they are all related to the plastic flow stress of the material. Table 1 lists the major types of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., abrasion; low-stress, or scratching, abrasion; and solid-particle erosion. In addition to the aforementioned classification scheme, the term two- and three-body abrasive wear , that is, components of sliding abrasion, has also been used to discriminate between abrasion modes. As...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loose particles are trapped between rubbing solids. They become momentarily fixed in the rubbing process to produce scratching but may also roll in the interface to produce material removal by adhesive transfer to the loose particle. Adhesive transfer or adhesive wear almost always occurs conjointly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... scratches on the hard metallic counterface upon the wear of the polyethylene was recognized. It had previously been shown ( Ref 61 ) that for isotropic counterface roughness, the relationship between the wear factor ( k ) and the roughness average ( R a ) of the hard counterface was given approximately by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... heat-cured and self-cured acrylic denture resins correlates with scratch measurements and values of flexural modulus of elasticity ( Ref 214 ). The abrasive wear rate of denture resins was much higher than that of composites, alloys, or teeth ( Ref 215 ). The frictional behavior and surface failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 7 illustrates the principle of a basic fretting wear test (i.e., plain fretting test without external bulk stress as usually applied in fretting fatigue experiments) ( Ref 41 , 42 ). This test configuration consists of applying a normal force, P , and a cyclic displacement, δ m (amplitude δ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... reviews tests, such as scratch test and in vitro fretting corrosion test, developed to investigate the aspects of mechanically assisted corrosion of metallic biomaterials. cobalt-base biomedical alloys electrochemical behavior in vitro fretting corrosion test iron-base biomedical alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-stress or scratching abrasion with loose abrasive, a rubber wheel test has been found useful. Figure 1 shows test results for a wide range of materials. The least wear-resistant material in Fig. 1 wears 1500 times faster than the most wear-resistant material. Fig. 1 Rubber wheel abrasion test...