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scratch testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... reviews tests, such as scratch test and in vitro fretting corrosion test, developed to investigate the aspects of mechanically assisted corrosion of metallic biomaterials. cobalt-base biomedical alloys electrochemical behavior in vitro fretting corrosion test iron-base biomedical alloys...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the distortions of the image of a cross on a patterned screen. This test method does not work for other surface geometries. Microscopic surface irregularities are usually measured by a microscope or a profilometer. They tend to fall into three categories: scratches, digs (or pits), and a mottled...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; expensive; detection of cracks can be difficult unless perpendicular to x-ray film. Pipeline welds for penetration, inclusions, and voids; internal defects in castings Visual optical Surface characteristics such as finish, scratches, cracks, or color; strain in transparent materials; corrosion Often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., or they may be damaged by scratches or other wear mechanisms. Both types of defects allow the corrosive medium to contact the substrate material or the interlayers and underlayers. Depending on the materials combination, the coating material is either more noble or less noble than the substrate...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... been demonstrated for this test. ASTM G 65-91, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus” ( Ref 26 ), offers four procedures for the determination of scratching abrasion resistance of metallic materials. It can also be used to test a wide variety of...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reasonably similar features. Figure 1 shows an approach to wear classification; here, wear is classified by the type of relative motion. Note that galling, scratching, scoring, and damage from the impact of a foreign body are not strictly forms of wear because material is not necessarily removed (it may...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... scratches perpendicular to the loading direction. Smooth SCC specimens allow for the evaluation of the total SCC life, which includes crack nucleation and propagation. Testing can be conducted under constant extension or strain, constant load, and constant extension or strain rate. The selection of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... crevice. Scratches on self-passivating implants that are not deep enough to restrict the mass transport of ions and cause local chemistry changes similar to those in pits and crevices usually repassivate spontaneously, unless the potential is high enough to maintain the activity. The potential below...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... design engineer, resistance to scratching to a mineralogist, and resistance to cutting to a machinist. Although these various definitions of hardness appear to differ significantly in character, they are all related to the plastic flow stress of the material. Table 1 lists the major types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... acetabular cup of a total hip replacement prosthesis can be made of alumina. Alumina-on-alumina prostheses have a low coefficient of friction, superior wear properties compared to metal-on-polymer and metal-on-metal prostheses, and high scratch resistance ( Ref 19 ). However, alumina prostheses do carry a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... properties and corrosion resistance of tinplate are summarized. The article also describes the methods of corrosion testing of coatings; these include an analysis of coating thickness measurements, porosity and rust resistance testing, solderability test, and specific special tests. atmospheric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of extender. Light pressure is preferred. This is usually accomplished by polishing sequentially on flat wheels with successively finer polishing compound. At each polishing level, the abrasion scratches of the prior step are removed by polishing normal to the prior direction. Care must be taken to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... was mainly caused by an intergranular fatigue fracture (originating in an area of wear) that may have been due to alloying element segregation at the grain boundaries. However, there were also pits and scratches on the side of the implant experiencing tensile loading, and stress-corrosion cracks...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... interpreted as structural elements. A properly prepared specimen has the following characteristics: Deformation induced by sectioning, grinding, and polishing is removed or shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches are removed; fine polishing scratches are tolerated in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... content of the final metallic product was visually tested at that time using the technique of color differentiation against small samples of known chemical content by scratching. The same technique was applied to test gold (Lydian stone) and silver coins, and inspectors in ancient times used senses other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-stress or scratching abrasion with loose abrasive, a rubber wheel test has been found useful. Figure 1 shows test results for a wide range of materials. The least wear-resistant material in Fig. 1 wears 1500 times faster than the most wear-resistant material. Fig. 1 Rubber wheel abrasion test...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... permeability sensitive. However, the signals often are not pertinent to the test, nor are they cause for rejection. Surface scratches can be cause for rejection in some products yet acceptable in others. Consequently, the inspection method and instrument selected must be capable of disregarding variables that...