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scratch hardness tests

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-scanning, and scratch tests. After a discussion on gear scuffing, information on the material-dependent adhesive wear and factors preventing adhesive wear is provided. adhesive wear coefficient of friction galling metal sliding contacts scoring scuffing seizure scratch tests twist compression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... reviews tests, such as scratch test and in vitro fretting corrosion test, developed to investigate the aspects of mechanically assisted corrosion of metallic biomaterials. cobalt-base biomedical alloys electrochemical behavior in vitro fretting corrosion test iron-base biomedical alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., but the load is in kilograms; for example, a reading obtained using a Knoop indenter and 500 g load would be expressed as HK 0.5 . Other hardness tests, such as nanoindentation hardness, Scleroscope hardness, Leeb (Equotip) hardness, and scratch hardness, can be helpful in specific applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Cracking, tears, or necking due to forming/deep drawing Laps due to thread rolling/spinning Tool marks and scratches from forming Surface tears due to poor surface preparation prior to working Residual-stress cracking due to flowforming Lüders lines due to forming strain rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... design engineer, resistance to scratching to a mineralogist, and resistance to cutting to a machinist. Although these various definitions of hardness appear to differ significantly in character, they are all related to the plastic flow stress of the material. Table 1 lists the major types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...–1110 (1040 avg) 940–1090 (1025 avg) 500 780–905 (850 avg) 685–890 (830 avg) In an investigation of the scratch hardness of chromium deposits of all types, it was observed that bright or semibright deposits had the best combination of hardness and wear resistance, regardless of plating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... scratches perpendicular to the loading direction. Smooth SCC specimens allow for the evaluation of the total SCC life, which includes crack nucleation and propagation. Testing can be conducted under constant extension or strain, constant load, and constant extension or strain rate. The selection of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... with air or oxidizers to form a thin chromium oxide film. This surface chromium oxide film is very passive or noble. If scratched, this passive film automatically heals in the air. Electrodeposited chromium coatings have a Knoop (100 g) microhardness of between 900 and 1100 kg/mm 2 . Chromium is the...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reasonably similar features. Figure 1 shows an approach to wear classification; here, wear is classified by the type of relative motion. Note that galling, scratching, scoring, and damage from the impact of a foreign body are not strictly forms of wear because material is not necessarily removed (it may...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The article describes testing methods such as room and high-temperature strength test methods, proof testing, fracture toughness measurement, and hardness and wear testing. It also explains methods for determining thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and emissivity of ceramics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the distortions of the image of a cross on a patterned screen. This test method does not work for other surface geometries. Microscopic surface irregularities are usually measured by a microscope or a profilometer. They tend to fall into three categories: scratches, digs (or pits), and a mottled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., or they may be damaged by scratches or other wear mechanisms. Both types of defects allow the corrosive medium to contact the substrate material or the interlayers and underlayers. Depending on the materials combination, the coating material is either more noble or less noble than the substrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... acetabular cup of a total hip replacement prosthesis can be made of alumina. Alumina-on-alumina prostheses have a low coefficient of friction, superior wear properties compared to metal-on-polymer and metal-on-metal prostheses, and high scratch resistance ( Ref 19 ). However, alumina prostheses do carry a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microscopes for measuring the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished or lapped surfaces. Visual examination and photography are instrumental in any failure investigation, and other articles in this Volume also describe visual examination in more detail. During direct examination, mirrors may be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... properties and corrosion resistance of tinplate are summarized. The article also describes the methods of corrosion testing of coatings; these include an analysis of coating thickness measurements, porosity and rust resistance testing, solderability test, and specific special tests. atmospheric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... been demonstrated for this test. ASTM G 65-91, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus” ( Ref 26 ), offers four procedures for the determination of scratching abrasion resistance of metallic materials. It can also be used to test a wide variety of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... interpreted as structural elements. A properly prepared specimen has the following characteristics: Deformation induced by sectioning, grinding, and polishing is removed or shallow enough to be removed by the etchant. Coarse grinding scratches are removed; fine polishing scratches are tolerated in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of extender. Light pressure is preferred. This is usually accomplished by polishing sequentially on flat wheels with successively finer polishing compound. At each polishing level, the abrasion scratches of the prior step are removed by polishing normal to the prior direction. Care must be taken to...