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scattered radiation control

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... associated with radiography. There are two main aspects of safety: monitoring radiation dosage and protecting personnel. The article summarizes the major factors involved in both and discusses the operating characteristics of X-ray tubes. It describes the various methods of controlling scattered radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... experiment. Diffraction is a phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation scattered from a periodic arrangement of scattering centers with spacings of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the radiation. Interference of the scattered rays in most directions results in cancellation and absence...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 28 Use of a combination of metallic shot, a lead mask, and a lead diaphragm to control scattered radiation More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 22 Use of a combination of metallic shot, a lead mask, and a lead diaphragm to control scattered radiation More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Diffraction is a phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation scattered from a periodic arrangement of scattering centers with spacings of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the radiation. Interference of the scattered rays in most directions results in cancellation and absence of detectable beams...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 4 Experimental arrangement showing four major components. 1, Suitably prepared source of recoil-free γ-rays given a precisely controlled velocity by a transducer. 2, Absorber containing isotopes capable of recoil-free scattering of the γ-rays emanating from the source. 3, γ-ray detector More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... scattering angles, the difference between the refractive indexes of the particle sphere and the continuum, the wavelength of the incident radiation, and the diameter of the sphere. As sphere or particle size increases from 1/10; to 10 times the size of incident light (0.63 μm, or 0.025 mil, for a helium-neon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... capabilities that can focus x-ray beams to near 1 μm, enabling the microcrystals to be successfully measured ( Ref 24 – 26 ). The beam size usually is matched to the size of the crystal to minimize background scattering from air and to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. For the radiation damage, one solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of molecular-scattering phenomena. The molecular-scattering phenomena that must be considered are Rayleigh scattering, Stokes scattering (the normal Raman effect), and anti-Stokes scattering. The nature of this scattered radiation is predicted by quantum theory and classical electromagnetic theory...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... 1 ). It belongs to the class of molecular-scattering phenomena. The molecular-scattering phenomena that must be considered are Rayleigh scattering, Stokes scattering (the normal Raman effect), and anti-Stokes scattering. The nature of this scattered radiation is predicted by quantum theory...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... processes: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production. Photoelectric Effect Photoelectric effect is an interaction with orbital electrons in which a photon of electromagnetic radiation is consumed in breaking the bond between an orbital electron and its atom. Energy in excess...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... distribution of ions its controlled vaporization into the analytical or atoms as the scatter from the atoms of a gap. See also analytical gap. element in an x-ray photoelectron spectros- sample. Usually, this pattern is observed on copy spectrum due to interactions of the ele- a specialized detector after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... signal ground-penetration radar microwave frequencies microwave reflection microwave refraction microwave scattering millimeter-wave frequencies nondestructive testing terahertz imaging MICROWAVES (or radar waves) are a form of electromagnetic radiation located in the electromagnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... a liquid tracer, such as alcohol, was used to image the porosity within carbon composite structures ( Ref 18 , 19 ). Backscatter or Compton Imaging Backscatter or Compton imaging is a technique in which the object is irradiated by a narrow x-ray beam, and the Compton scattering of this radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... properties are important to spectroscopy. Electromagnetic radiation exhibits behavior that requires two theories to explain. The wave theory describes behavior of electromagnetic radiation, such as refraction, reflection, diffraction, and scatter. Radiation is defined as an energy form consisting of two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., that is, chemically bonded, or- channeling pattern. A pattern of lines ob- collimation. The operation of controlling a ganic stationary phase. See also normal- served in a scanning electron image of a beam of radiation so that its rays are as phase chromatography, reversed-phase single-crystal surface caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., because it adds no useful information to the image. Radiation entering the part either penetrates through the part to the detector, is absorbed by the part (attenuates), or is scattered by the part. Scattered radiation that reaches the detector adds no useful information and can degrade the resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of plates, cylinders, and flanges. The article discusses various control methods, including the use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and the use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The radiographic appearance of specific types of flaws is also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides an introduction to extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). It describes the fundamentals of EXAFS with an emphasis on the physical mechanism, the single-scattering approximation, and multiple-scattering effects. The article discusses the use...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... scatter of x-rays. K, L, and M denote electron shells of principal quantum numbers 1, 2, and 3, respectively; φ is the angle between the incident and scattered rays. Scatter affects x-ray spectrometry in two ways. First, the total amount of scattered radiation increases with atomic number because...