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scanning-electron microscope fractographs

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture information contained in optical and scanning-electron microscope fractographs. fractography fracture surface preparation light microscopy optical fractographs scanning-electron microscope fractographs FRACTOGRAPHY is the term coined in 1944 to describe the science of studying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) and transgranular fracture (right). Fig. 6 (a) Chevrons (arrows) emanating from the fracture origin in a bolt that failed under conditions of bending overload. (b) SEM fractographs of the origin and fracture surface shown in (a) The scanning electron microscope optical column and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... form of FeO. The fracture surface contains dimples that initiated at globular FeO inclusions averaging 5.2 μm in diameter. SEM, 1800× Fig. 5 Stereo pair of scanning electron microscope fractographs of the surface of a tensile-test fracture obtained at room temperature. The alloy was a low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs is also included in the caption. For example, “TEM p-c replica, 10,000×” indicates a plastic-carbon two-stage replica examined in a transmission electron microscope at a magnification of 10,000×. Replication techniques are discussed in the articles “History of Fractography” and “Transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... electron microscope. Fig. 1318 : Notched three-point-bend specimen after 215 min at 42 °C (110 °F) and constant load. Stress intensity = 0.30 MPa m (0.27 ksi in. ). Note the craze-like damage zone emanating from the notch (far left). Damage zone propagated at 0.16 μm/min prior to crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... , and 663 . Scanning electron photomicrographs are of the lateral (tension or screw-head-side) surface of plate subjected to fatigue loading. Fig. 664 : Lateral surface of plate. Note slip-band activity and intrusions formed by slip bands. SEM, 187×. Fig. 665 : Higher-magnification view of area on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... arrows at “a” indicate two large gas cavities. The arrows at “b,” “c,” and “d” identify sites that were examined with a scanning electron microscope. (SEM fractographs of these sites are shown in Fig. 924 and Fig. 925 .) Note the absence of shear lips on the edges of this fracture surface, indicating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs with illustrations. cleaning fractograph fracture surface scanning electron microscopy specimen replication transmission electron microscopy THE APPLICATION of the transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena made it possible to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... focus, the possibility of changing magnification over a wide range, very simple nondestructive specimen preparation with direct inspection, and the three-dimensional appearance of scanning electron microscope fractographs make the instrument a vital and essential tool for fracture research. Additional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... history, environmental effects, and material quality. The principal technique used to analyze this evidence is electron fractography. Fundamental to the application of this technique is an understanding of how metals fracture and how the environment affects the fracture process. This article is divided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... shown by Zapffe, relatively few optical fractographs, have been published by others, and microfractography did not gain general acceptance until the development of TEM replication methods in the 1950s. With the commercial introduction of the scanning electron microscope in 1965, the field of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... polymer fracture surfaces can be avoided by using an SEM with low-vacuum capability. Scanning electron microscope fractographs of polymer fatigue are presented in Fig. 49 to 51 . Unlike metals, which require the use of an SEM and magnifications in excess of 500×, fatigue striations in polymers can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... investigations are performed by auxiliary equipment on either a scanning or a transmission electron microscope, they may be considered to be fractographic procedures. Brittleness or ductility may be revealed by fractography. In general, a ductile alloy will fracture by microvoid coalescence and a brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 1968 ( Ref 6 ). Figure 4 compares fractographs obtained by conventional photography and scanning light photomacrography. The entire fracture surface is in sharp focus when scanning light photomacrography is used. This could not be accomplished in any other way except in a scanning electron microscope...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or by sectioning and preparing the specimen for scanning electron microscopic examination and/or metallography. It is important to photograph the component at each stage of the cleaning or sectioning processes to retain the characteristic information available for the component at each step of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... considerably during the past few years ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). The main thrust has been directed toward ways to augment the two-dimensional information in the scanning electron microscope fractograph. Elevation information is needed in order to quantify the true magnitudes of features in the nonplanar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chemistry at the micro level. Another technique desirable in failure analysis is combining stereomicroscopic images with scanning electron microscopy to perform further chemical analysis. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy within optical microscopes allows for chemical fingerprinting directly from a color...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... useful when it is desirable to relate the origin to abuse damage on the adjacent surface. Because of its great depth of focus, the scanning electron microscope is generally used to obtain these, but the optical microscope can also be effective at lower magnification. The history of the part and the...