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scanning tunneling microscope

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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 1 A scanning tunneling microscope can be operated in either the constant-current or the constant-height mode. The images are of graphite in air. Reprinted from Ref 114 , with the permission of AIP Publishing More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 2 Principle of operation of the scanning tunneling microscope made by Binnig and Rohrer. CU, control unit. Reprinted from Ref 124 , with permission from Elsevier More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 3 Principle of operation of a commercial scanning tunneling microscope. A sharp tip attached to a piezoelectric tube (PZT) scanner is scanned on a sample. More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 4 Scanning tunneling microscope images of evaporated C 60 film on gold-coated freshly cleaved mica using a mechanically sheared platinum-iridium (80/20) tip in constant-height mode. Source: Ref 125 . © IOP Publishing. Reproduced with permission. All rights reserved More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides an overview of scanning probe microscopes (scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM)), covering the various operating modes and probes used in these instruments and providing information on AFM instrumentation, applications, and analyses...
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 7 Schematics of the four detection systems for measurement of cantilever deflection. In each setup, the sample mounted on a piezoelectric body is shown on the right, the cantilever in the middle, and the corresponding deflection sensor on the left. STM, scanning tunneling microscope; PSD More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 5 Bond formation in ultrasonic additive manufacturing. (a) Schematic illustration of head-to-head welding of gold nanowires where one nanowire is caused to approach the other. STM, scanning tunneling microscope. (b) and (c) The motion in (a) is shown in transmission electron microscopy More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... microscopic techniques capable of revealing surface structure from the macroscopic level to the atomic level. These techniques include optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) ( Ref 6 ). Optical microscopes can magnify...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 17 (a) Microbe-induced corrosion (MIC) in 304 stainless steel. (b) Tunneling of MIC in same material shown in (a). Electrolytic oxalic acid etch. (c) Scanning electron microscope image of MIC More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... because it is difficult to determine when a slip band or other deformation feature becomes a crack. Certainly, however, cracks as small as a fraction of a micron can be observed using modern metallographic tools such as the scanning electron microscope or scanning tunneling microscope. The microcracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... and in-field testing Scanning electron microscope Basic understanding of the crack initiation and growth mechanisms Transmission electron microscope Basic understanding of the crack initiation and growth mechanisms Scanning tunneling microscope Understanding of the crack nucleation phenomena...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... computer numerical control cP centipoise CSOM confocal scanning optical microscope cSt centistokes CTE coefficient of thermal expansion CVD chemical vapor deposition CVI chemical vapor infiltration CVN Charpy V-notch (impact test or specimen) cw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...-state welding STA solution treated and aged STEM scanning transmission electron microscope/microscopy STM/S scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy SUS Saybolt universal seconds (viscosity) Sv sievert SW stud arc welding t thickness; time T tesla T temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... types of microscopes, including the scanning tunneling microscope and the confocal microscope. The optical microscope offers a number of forms of illumination for revealing surface detail: Bright-field illumination is the most widely used. The incident light is reflected back through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... nanometers in diameter. Piezoelectric ceramics were used to control the motion of the probe relative to the sample, and a vibration-isolation system similar to that used in the scanning tunneling microscope was used. In the initial AFM instrument, vertical and horizontal resolution was a few nanometers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0005663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... wiring board STEM scanning transmission electron co infinity oc is proportional to; varies as PWHT postweld heat treatment microscope!microscopy STM!S scanning tunneling microscopy! f integral of PWM pulse width modulation < less than spectroscopy « much less than Q&T quenched and tempered SUS Saybolt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.9781627081733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by Electron Backscatter Diffraction in the Scanning Electron Microscope” in this Volume). Electron diffraction is usually used for symmetry determination and raw determination of unit cell parameters and atomic positions; however, recent techniques can determine the structures from these data. Advantages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides detailed information on the instrumentation and principles of the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It begins with a description of the primary components of a conventional SEM instrument. This is followed by a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages...