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scanning probe microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... scanning tunneling microscope scanning probe microscopy atomic force microscope SINCE THE INTRODUCTION of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in 1981 and the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1985, many variations of probe-based microscopies, referred to as scanning probe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... detailed discussion of WDS can be found in the article “Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis” in this Volume. To correctly interpret the physical significance of various signals used in scanning electron microscopy, the volume below the surface from which the signal is originating must be known. Monte...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., especially in conjunction with backscattered electron imaging. A great deal of information is available on x-ray analysis. Manufacturer's publications are good sources, as are Ref 4 , 12 , 14 , and 17 and the articles “Scanning Electron Microscopy” and “Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis” in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ( Ref 1 ). With the exception of hydrogen and helium, which do not produce characteristic x-rays, all elements of the periodic table can be measured. Generally referred to as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), the technique is typically performed in a scanning electron microscope equipped with an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to a probe used in a light lever atomic force microscope (AFM). They are the chip, cantilever, and tip. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of a microfabricated tip used in an AFM The AFM probes are created with MEMS manufacturing techniques. There are several variables that are used when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has proven to be very useful in the measurement of crystallographic textures, orientation relationships between phases, and both plastic and elastic strains. This article focuses on backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... then scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to perform further detailed microstructure characterization. The TEM approach is unique among materials characterization techniques in that it enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the operation and capabilities of surface analysis methods of metals, including scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microstructural analysis of metals, such as scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy, are then reviewed. The article contains tables listing analytical methods used for characterization of metals and alloys and surface analysis techniques. It ends by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., namely scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. It briefly describes the operating principles, instrumentation which includes energy dispersive X-ray detectors, spatial resolution, typical use of the techniques, elemental analysis detection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is an overview of the division Surface Analysis of this volume. The division covers various developed surface-analysis techniques, such as scanning probe and atomic force microscopy. The division focuses on the analysis of surface layers that are less than 100 nm. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... nanotechnology and the development of smart coatings have been dependent largely on the availability of analytical and imaging techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. ball milling chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...: Microscopic feature measurement Fracture characterization Microstructure studies Thin coating evaluations Surface contamination examination Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a form of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) where a small probe is scanned across the sample to obtain information...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...; EELS, electron energy-loss spectroscopy; EPMA, electron probe x-ray microanalysis; EDS, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; RS, Raman spectroscopy; RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; STEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy; XRF, x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...), a technique developed in the 1990s, is based on detection of waves using an atomic force microscope (AFM), allowing extremely high resolution during scanning of a sample. This method typically uses lower-frequency vibrations than SAW microscopy (in the range of 2 to 10 MHz) to probe the mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...: cathodoluminescence; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; SKPM: scanning Kelvin probe microscopy; SIMS: secondary ion mass spectroscopy; RBS: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; XPS: x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; AFM: atomic force microscopy; EFM: electrostatic force microscopy; SCM: scanning capacitance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... ( Ref 77 ). As a result, the extent of resorption can be measured by microscopic observation of the surface, using analyses such as scanning electron microscopy, confocal and fluorescent microscopy, contact and laser profilometry, transmission electron roscopy, and scanning probe microscopy. In vivo...