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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the details of SEM-based techniques and specialized SEM instruments. It ends with example applications of various SEM modes. scanning electron microscopy electron beam-sample interaction Overview Introduction A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of instrument that magnifies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article outlines the beam/sample interactions and the basic instrumental design of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which include the electron gun, probeforming column (consisting of magnetic electron lenses, apertures, and scanning coils), electron detectors, and vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic materials. This article highlights the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has unique capabilities for analyzing fracture surfaces. This article discusses the basic principles and practice of SEM, with an emphasis on its applications in fractography. The topics include an introduction to SEM instrumentation, imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown various significant improvements since it first became available in 1965. These improvements include enhanced resolution, dependability, ease of operation, and reduction in size and cost. This article provides a detailed account...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Scanning electron microscopy. (a) Typical scanning electron microscope used in failure analysis photography. (b) Scanning electron microscope photograph of a fatigue fracture More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 9 Backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy image of corrosion products (dark spots) on a stainless steel hypotube. The lower atomic number of the nonmetallic deposit material appears darker than the underlying metal. More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscopy backscattered electron images of Ti64 samples that were deposited via the LENS system using hatch widths of (a) 0.89 mm (0.035 in.), (b) 1.5 mm (0.06 in.), and (c) 2.0 mm (0.08 in.). The images show three different-sized scales of engineered porosities More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 27 Resolved image acquired by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, with associated spectrum. Courtesy of KTA-Tator, Inc. More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 28 Spectrum obtained using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, with element identification. Courtesy of KTA-Tator, Inc. More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 9 (a) Scanning electron microscopy image of as-sintered surface of a 316L part showing spherical oxides formed during cooling from the sintering temperature. These are oxides of silicon, and their formation is promoted by a high dewpoint of the sintering atmosphere and slow rate More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 16 Scanning electron microscopy image of the surface of an as-sintered 304L part showing chromium nitride precipitates along the grain boundaries and in the grains. Sintering atmosphere was dissociated ammonia. More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscopy images of typical microstructures of metallic biomaterials. (a) 316L stainless steel. Backscattered electron (BE) image showing grains and twins within grains. Polishing scratches are also evident. 1500×. (b) Cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy (ASTM F75). BE image showing More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Scanning electron microscopy image of type 310 (UNS S31000) stainless steel after 3 high temperature/downtime corrosion cycles. Details of the labeled layers are given in the text. Original magnification: 500× More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 8 Scanning electron microscopy image and elemental maps of scale on 310 (UNS S31000) stainless steel after 17,000 h exposure in a syngas cooler. (a) Backscattered electron image. (b) Oxygen map. (c) Sulfur map. (d) Chlorine map. (e) Chromium map. (f) Iron map distribution More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscopy photo of the surface of a 300-series stainless steel sample obtained from AES instrument. Field of view, 1 μm More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 30 Scanning electron microscopy image of surface relief created by the martensitic transformation in a single crystal of ZrO 2 . Source: Ref 32 . Reprinted with permission More
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 15 Microstructure (scanning electron microscopy image) of hot rolled 5150 steel heated in a simulated induction-hardening process at 300 °C/s to 900 °C (540 °F/s to 1650 °F) and then quenched to form a martensitic microstructure with visible ghost pearlite, identified by the white arrows More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 37 Scanning electron microscopy observation of Al-3Cu. (a) Spike probably formed by the last solidification of interdendritic liquid. (b) Deformed spike probably formed by necking of a solid bridge. Source: Ref 27 More