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scanning electron microscopes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray spectroscopy is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. While “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems are used less frequently in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Microstructures in Rocks Using Forescatter Detectors in the Scanning Electron Microscope , Mineralog. Mag. , Vol 60 (No. 6 ), 1996 , p 859 – 869 10.1180/minmag.1996.060.403.01 12. Boyle A.P. , Prior D.J. , Banham M.H. , and Timms N.E. , Plastic Deformation of Metamorphic Pyrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... finishes. The article concludes with a description of the advances in the development of waterborne acrylic coatings for maintenance and protective applications. acrylic polymers acrylic resins glass transition temperature melamine-formaldehyde polymerization scanning electron microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., brittle, and fatigue fracture with illustrations. It discusses microanalysis with a focus on the method of light microscopy and includes information of scanning electron microscope in fractography. The article also explains the characteristics of solidification, transformation, deformation structures, and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are based on fracture profilometry. This is followed by a section describing the methods based on scanning electron microscope fractography. The article also addresses procedures for three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction. In each case, sufficient methodological details, governing equations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discussed. display equipment electron optical column fractography microstructure sample preparation scanning electron microscopy signal detection vacuum system THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... dating back to the sixteenth century to the state-of-the-art work in electron fractography and quantitative fractography. It also describes the applications and limitations of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. electron fractography fractography microfractography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... scanning Auger microscopes, and lists the applications and limitations of SEM. Jominy testing optical microscopes scanning electron microscopes scanning electron microscopy X-ray spectrometers References 1. Broers A.N. , Scan. Elec. Microsc. , 1974 , p 10...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... microanalysis energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers microbeam analysis qualitative analysis quantitative analysis scanning electron microscopes wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy References 1. Castaing R. , Thesis, University of Paris, France...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... surfaces. The applications of quantitative fractography for striation spacings, precision matching, and crack path tortuosity are also discussed. quantitative fractography scanning electron microscopes surface area surface roughness transmission electron microscopes THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides detailed information on the instrumentation and principles of the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It begins with a description of the primary components of a conventional SEM instrument. This is followed by a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture information contained in optical and scanning-electron microscope fractographs. fractography fracture surface preparation light microscopy optical fractographs scanning-electron microscope fractographs FRACTOGRAPHY is the term coined in 1944 to describe the science of studying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... general features of ductile and brittle fracture modes. fractography fracture modes scanning electron microscopy specimen preparation THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE has unique capabilities for analyzing surfaces. A beam of electrons moves in an x - y pattern across a conductive specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... scanning electron microscopy topographic contrast X-ray microanalysis THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of materials. Under electron bombardment, a variety of different signals is generated (including secondary electrons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs with illustrations. cleaning fractograph fracture surface scanning electron microscopy specimen replication transmission electron microscopy THE APPLICATION of the transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena made it possible to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... , Delozanne A.L. , and Tortonese M. , Atomic Force Microscope Using Piezoresistive Cantilevers and Combined with a Scanning Electron Microscope , Appl. Phys. Lett. , Vol 65 , 1994 , p 2878 – 2880 10.1063/1.113030 149. Kassing R. and Oesterschulze E. , Sensors for Scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... , Williams D.B. , Lifshin E. , and Fiori C.E. , Advanced Topics in Scanning Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis , Plenum Press , 1986 10.1007/978-1-4757-9027-6 22. Romig A.D. Jr. , and “X-ray Microanalysis in the Analytical Electron Microscope,” Report SAND82-2938...