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scanning electrode technique

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... available for laboratory studies of corrosion phenomena. The techniques and tests include no-applied-signal tests, small-signal polarization tests, large-signal polarization tests, scanning electrode techniques, and miscellaneous techniques. electrochemical corrosion electrochemical test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the details of SEM-based techniques and specialized SEM instruments. It ends with example applications of various SEM modes. scanning electron microscopy electron beam-sample interaction A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of instrument that magnifies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... The vacuum bell jar is used, but is modified such that two carbon electrodes are used in place of a tungsten substrate for a metal wire. The carbon is evaporated by passing an alternating current of 20 A at 30 V through the electrodes. More detailed descriptions of this techniques and of thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... imaging capabilities of variations of probe-based microscope techniques, referred to as scanning probe microscopy, dominated the application of these methods at their early development stages. However, the physics and chemistry of probe-sample interactions and the quantitative analyses of tribological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... microscopy (SEM). The article “Scanning Electron Microscopy” in Volume 9 of ASM Handbook presents a review of the technique. Figure 1 shows the basic components of the scanning electron microscope. The various components of the microscope can be categorized as (1) the electron column, (2) the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., crystal structure, and defect density and allowing new types of imaging with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) ( Ref 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). These techniques use the fact that the proportion of primary electrons backscattered and reaching the BE detector depends on the angle between the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic materials. This article highlights the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... 0.1–0.5 Electric potential 0.1–0.5 Magnetic property 0.076 Ultrasonics 0.050 Gel electrode imaging 0.030 Liquid penetrant 0.025–0.25 Compliance 0.01 Scanning electron microscope 0.001 Transmission electron microscope 0.0001 Scanning tunneling microscope 0.0001...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract A major portion of microstructural analysis of magnetic materials has centered on examination of optical, electron, and scanning probe metallographic techniques. This article reviews the methods pertaining to the microstructural examination of bulk magnetic materials, including...
Book Chapter

By D.R. Crow
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001741
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... pattern of forward and reverse sweeps. Solid electrodes are used frequently, especially carbon-paste, glassy carbon, or pyrolytic carbon. Material reduced and deposited in the forward part of each cycle is reoxidized in the reverse scan. The technique finds application in investigations of mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... nanotechnology and the development of smart coatings have been dependent largely on the availability of analytical and imaging techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. ball milling chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article focuses on various thermal analysis techniques that are used to verify the cure of a polymer composite. The techniques include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), modulated DSC, thermomechanical analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and dielectric analysis. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX), and wavelength dispersive analysis of x-rays (WDS). The quality of preparation of the ceramics samples for these techniques is the determining factor in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Nondestructive testing (NDT), also known as nondestructive evaluation (NDE), includes various techniques to characterize materials without damage. This article focuses on the typical NDE techniques that may be considered when conducting a failure investigation. The article begins with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-mode scanning acoustic microscope. This instrument incorporates a reflection, pulse-echo technique that employs a focused transducer lens to generate and receive the ultrasound signals beneath the surface of the sample. The ultrasound is brought to the sample by a coupling medium, usually water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...×. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) are also employed depending on the need for more detailed microstructural characterization. The very properties that make cemented carbides good tool materials severely restrict the techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Idt This article describes various methods of electrochemical analysis. The oldest electroanalytical technique is electrogravimetry, where the element of interest is deposited electrolytically onto an electrode and weighed. A more common method is coulometry, which is comprised of several...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... properly controlled procedures. Relative density measurements for a material or for materials with the same effective atomic number can be made. Absolute density can be obtained with properly controlled procedures. Alternative techniques, such as dual-energy scanning, may improve capabilities with...