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scandium binary system

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... system, a table of crystallographic data is provided that includes the composition, Pearson symbol, space group, and prototype for each phase. binary phase diagrams crystallographic data phase data scandium binary system THIS ARTICLE includes systems where scandium is the first-named element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... system, a table of crystallographic data is provided that includes the composition, Pearson symbol, space group, and prototype for each phase. binary phase diagrams crystallographic data phase data yttrium binary system THIS ARTICLE includes systems where yttrium is the first-named element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... system, a table of crystallographic data is provided that includes the composition, Pearson symbol, space group, and prototype for each phase. binary phase diagrams crystallographic data phase data titanium binary system THIS ARTICLE includes systems where titanium is the first-named element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... intermetallic phases of binary systems that come into equilibrium with aluminum in the ternary alloys. These phases form simple, eutectiferous quasi-binary systems with aluminum. Important examples are Mg 2 Si and MgZn 2 . Among a number of other phases of this type, which may be found occasionally in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Rare earth metals belong to Group IIIA of the periodic table that includes scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanide elements which are lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... exist as a solid, liquid, and/or gas, depending on the specific combination of temperature and pressure. It describes the accomplishment of conversion between weight percentage and atomic percentage in a binary system by the use of formulas. The article analyzes the effects of alloying on melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... The first group includes the transition metal-metal binary alloy systems, such as copper-zirconium, nickel-titanium, and nickel-niobium, as well as binary alloys in the aluminum-refractory metal and Al-TM type. The second class consists of TM-metalloid alloys. These alloys are usually iron-, nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... series of wrought aluminum alloys (1xxx to 8xxx) and discusses their applications based on the alloying system introduced by the Aluminum Association. alloy composition alloying elements heat treatment non-heat treatment wrought aluminum alloys FOLLOWING THE DISCOVERY of the Hall-Héroult...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... standard Gibbs energy change of formation of oxides and the corresponding dissociation pressures of the oxides as a function of temperature. It demonstrates the Kellogg diagram which shows stability range in more complicated multioxidant systems. The article explains the determination of partial pressures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... technique ( Ref 26 , 27 ). The aluminum-scandium-based alloys have the potential to provide a new class of MMCs, due to the balanced strength, ductility, and toughness in this system. Another class of aluminum alloys that has attracted the attention of researchers in the recent past is the amorphous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... quaternary systems, intermetallic phases of the respective binary and ternary systems are occasionally isomorphous, forming continuous series of solid solutions in equilibrium with aluminum solid solution. An important example is the Al-Cu-Mg-Zn quaternary system, where there are three such pairs: CuMg 4 Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... molybdenum, result in stability of the beta phase at lower temperatures. There are two types of beta stabilizers: Isomorphous beta stabilizers that form binary systems ( Fig. 2b ) Beta stabilizers that favor formation of a beta-phase eutectoid ( Fig. 2c ) Neutral alloying elements include tin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... volume fraction of hard primary-silicon particles in the microstructure, and they are often used in applications requiring a high degree of wear resistance, such as pistons, cylinder liners, brake systems components, and transmission servo pistons. Matrix-hardening alloys (2 xx .0 and 355.0 families...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... aluminum alloy, at least one alloying element must have a decreasing solid solubility as the temperature is decreased ( Fig. 3 ). Changes in solubility of various aluminum precipitates and alloying systems are shown in Fig. 4 . Although this condition is met by most of the binary aluminum alloy systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Vol 18, ASM Handbook , ASM International, 1992, p 785–794. Aluminum alloys are generally divided into two major groups, depending on the fabrication method: wrought and casting alloys. According to the “American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., however, the dislocations are relatively mobile. Brittleness results either from low-symmetry crystal structures that do not possess enough independent slip systems to permit arbitrary deformation or from the presence of grain boundaries that are too weak to resist the propagation of cracks. Recently, it...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... readily assessed from the Ellingham diagram of the free energies of formation of the oxidation product. In general, the most reactive or oxygen active (least noble) metals are found in the alkali and alkaline earth (groups IA and IIA of the periodic table), the scandium group IIIA (including the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... observed with bright-field illumination but often can be enhanced using polarized light. There are few instances where naturally occurring color differences are observed in metallic systems. Specimens plated with copper or gold are a common example. There are two main optical methods for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...), and peritectoid decomposition to two entirely different phases in the system (such as the formation of α-Ti and high-TiO solid solutions from δ phase). Compounds may also be formed by the solid-state eutectoid reaction of two adjacent phases in the phase diagram (e.g., the formation of Ti 3 O 5 ). For...