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saponification

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for removing a wide variety of soils from the surface of metals. This article focuses on the composition, operating conditions, and test and control of alkaline cleaners, as well as equipment used and their application methods. It describes the mechanisms of alkaline cleaning, such as saponification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is their hydrolysis or saponification to the acid: RCO 2 R + NaOH → RCO 2 Na + ROH If a measured excess of NaOH is used, it is relatively simple to titrate the NaOH remaining after saponification is complete. Each ester group consumes one equivalent of the base, permitting calculation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... … Excellent Excellent Carbazole violets … Very good Very good Source: Ref 9 Fig. 5 Vulnerability of organic linkages to saponification and hydrolysis. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 2 Solar spectrum as emitted and after absorption and scattering. 1. sun spectrum before entering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Alkaline cleaners are blends of various inorganic salts with small amounts of inhibitors and surfactants to promote different cleaning mechanisms, such as saponification and emulsification. Saponification refers to the chemical action whereby an oil is converted to a water-soluble soap. This reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 1 and R 2 are alkyl or aromatic groups. (a) Saponification and (b) hydrolysis of an ester linkage Fig. 2 Spectral changes in sunlight by absorption and scattering in the atmosphere. Curve 1, incident light above stratosphere (extraterrestrial radiation). Curve 2, modification by ozone...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... , 2006 • Holmberg K. , High Solids Alkyd Resins , CRC Press , 1987 • Patton T. C. , Ed., Alkyd Resin Technology, Formulating Techniques and Allied Calculations , Interscience Publishers , New York , 1962 • Senkowski E.B. , Saponification: From Paint...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cleaned metal surface optimizes the performance of a coating that is subsequently applied by conversion coating, electroplating, painting, or other operations. The main chemical methods of soil removal by an alkaline cleaner are saponification, displacement, emulsification and dispersion, and metal oxide...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... water rinse. A properly cleaned metal surface optimizes the performance of a coating that is subsequently applied by conversion coating, electroplating, painting, or other operations. The main chemical methods of soil removal by an alkaline cleaner are saponification, displacement, emulsification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... immersion, spray cycles Removes oil and grease by saponification or emulsification Degree of cleanliness depends largely on thorough mechanical agitation Mix of ingredients such as surfactants, sequestering agents, saponifiers, emulsifiers, and chelators Also with various forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Radioisotope Tracer Technique Solvent Cleaning Emulsion Cleaning Alkaline Cleaning Saponification Electrolytic Cleaning Abrasive Cleaning Acid Cleaning Phosphoric Acid Etching Molten Salt Bath Cleaning Ultrasonic Cleaning The selection of a cleaning process must be based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... parts, a number of alkaline cleaning solutions are available and have been used after solvent cleaning processes. The aqueous-based detergents mix emulsifiers and surfactants (wetting agents) with mild alkaline phosphates, borates, or silicates to optimize properties such as oil emulsion, saponification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., and specialized elastomeric linings. Note that alkyd or oil-based coatings should never be specified for application to concrete because the alkyd resin may react chemically with alkaline concrete compounds and moisture, leading to saponification. This reaction transforms the resin into a soft material...
Book Chapter

By Rob Bosman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of grease is often referred to as a simple grease, for example, lithium grease. If, during saponification, a complexing agent is added, it is possible to add an extra group to the thickener, which typically increases the dropping point of the thickener and thereby increases the operating window of a grease...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... must be prohibited close to trichloroethylene degreasing plants to avoid the risk of phosgene poisoning. Alkaline detergents act be penetrating the contaminant layer and removing it by emulsification, saponification, or flocculation. Appropriate commercial salts are available in powder or crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and tail solution chemistry may also affect the film strength of the coating and its bonding to the steel substrate. The head is a moving pool of acidic electrolyte, while the tail is alkaline and filled with corrosion products. The alkalinity of the tail region may lead to local saponification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... concentration X X X X X … … Chlorine concentration X X X X X … … Particle size … … … X X … … Solids content X X … X X X X Color X X … X X … … Saponification number X X … X X … X Evaporation X X … … … … … Flash point X X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... at the bottom of the pore and builds up toward the exterior. For the purpose of lubrication, the porosity of the surface leads to very good oil retention. Further, the oil may chemically bind to the phosphate layer by a saponification reaction. Lastly, on compression, the crystals can form a glass phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4