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Published: 15 January 2021
corrosion tests (three-body abrasion) using a sand-containing corrosive slurry either fed by a hopper (1) or kept in a container (2). Source: Ref 30 . Reproduced with permission from “Standard Test Method for Conducting Wet Sand/Rubber Wheel Abrasion Tests,” G 105, Corrosion of Metals; Wear and Erosion More
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Green sand molding and chemically bonded sand molding are considered to be the most basic and widely used mold-making processes. This article describes the sand system formulation, preparation, mulling, mold fabrication, and handling of green sand molds. It lists the advantages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., scale, dry solids, mold sand, ceramic shell coatings, or dried paint Roughening surfaces in preparation for bonding, painting, enameling, or other coating substances Removing large burrs or weld spatter Developing a uniform surface finish, even when slightly dissimilar surfaces are present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.9781627082075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and assembly. The types and application methods of various lost foam coatings are explained. The article also describes the investment of the foam pattern in a sand system. It concludes with a discussion on the advantages of lost foam casting and information on the formation and control of folds. lost...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hoppers before the sand mixers, or by the use of an accurate thermometer placed in sand that has been discharged from the mixer. Pattern temperatures should also be controlled. Grain Fineness American Foundry Society (AFS) grain fineness number (gfn) tests should be performed periodically to check...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract Lost foam casting is a sand casting process in which the mold consists of an evaporative polystyrene foam pattern embedded in sand. It is especially well suited for making complex parts with convoluted features such as engine blocks, transmission cases, and cylinder heads. This article...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... it is immediately compacted. Prepared sand for the cold- and heat-activated processes is generally discharged into a storage hopper above a coremaking machine. Release Agents All core binders are sticky, but some are less so than others. It is this characteristic that requires the use of release agents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... States; approximately 300,000 were tank cars and 440,000 were covered hoppers, both of which use somewhat robust coating systems. This article provides an overview of rail coatings, including their history, function, application, and selection. Fig. 1 Representative railcar A Brief History...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Inadequate drying of the coated sand may result in one or more of the following problems: Low-melting-point bonds between sand grains Molds with low hot tensile strength Blockage or caking of the coated sand in the storage hoppers and molding machines Poor or irregular buildup on the backs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... , 6 ). Fig. 1 Powder morphology by different production methods Powder Flow Flow characteristics of metal powders are important in filling dies for pressing of PM compacts, which are later sintered and sometimes machined into finished parts. The flow of metal powders in bins, hoppers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... to conduct a job hazard analysis (JHA) before performing a task that may result in injury or death. For example, before discharging a container of metal powder into a supply hopper for a 3D printer, stop and consider the possibility of dust generation, ignition, and generation of a fire, flash fire, or dust...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the basic types of mold aggregates and bonding methods for expendable molds and coremaking. It provides an overview of mold media and the basic types of sands and their properties. The most significant clays used in green sand operations, such as bentonites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in.) diam × 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) wide; a sand hopper connected by a tube to a nozzle that allows 300 to 400 g/min sand flow; a revolution counter that stops the drive motor after a set number of revolutions; and a weighted lever arm that holds the specimen and produces a horizontal force against the wheel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... onto the end of a hydraulically operated squeeze piston, with the other pattern half fitted to a swing plate, so called because of its ability to move and swing away from the completed mold. Sand from a supply hopper above the machine is blown into the molding chamber by means of a variable-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... system are: Build box Build stage/Z axis Powder hopper/storage Powder dispenser Powder spreader Printhead Binder storage Heater Gantries for powder and printhead Fig. 2 (a) Image of a layer of powder in mid-print in the binder jet process and (b) depowdering after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The primary fossil fuels are generally defined as coal, oil, natural gas, tar sands, and shale oil. This article discusses the characteristics and the types of fuels used in fossil and fuel industries. It describes the energy conversion in fuels and outlines the efficiency of a heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... are the hopper, heated extruder barrel, reciprocating screw, nozzle, and mold clamp. The hopper feeds the unmelted thermoplastic, usually in pellet form, into the barrel. The hopper is often equipped with a desiccant-type drying system to remove moisture degradation. A magnet is placed in the hopper throat...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in place by heavy steel posts or similar mechanisms. There can be no flexing of the doors, either mechanically or thermally, during the melting operation, or cracks in the bottom refractory will occur that may result in an iron runout. Sand Bottom A sand bottom is rammed over the closed bottom doors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract Aggregate molding, or sand casting, is the gravity pouring of liquid metal into a mold that is made of a mixture molded against a permanent pattern. This article summarizes the most important materials in the process of sand casting of cast iron, including different types of molding...