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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 24 Mechanized sand cooler used in high-production molding lines More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., incorporate a pouring area, cooling area, dump-out area, sand return system, and sand cooler classifier system. To maintain consistent sand permeability, it is necessary to screen or separate the fine particles that accumulate. The sand must be cooled before being returned to the flask fill area. Foam pattern...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Green sand molding and chemically bonded sand molding are considered to be the most basic and widely used mold-making processes. This article describes the sand system formulation, preparation, mulling, mold fabrication, and handling of green sand molds. It lists the advantages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., namely, air-cooled heat exchangers, air-cooled heat exchangers with trim cooler, closed-circuit evaporative cooling towers, and open evaporative cooling towers. The article discusses the importance of their placement or positioning to reduce the chances of air recirculation, and concludes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... distribution is used in ferrous applications, while AFS 45-3 screen distribution is used in most nonferrous systems. Most sand systems, in addition to the compaction and sand fill stations, incorporate a pouring area, cooling area, dump-out area, sand return system, and sand cooler classifier system...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract No-bake sand molds are based on the curing of inorganic or organic binders with either gaseous catalysts or liquid catalysts. This article reviews the major aspects of no-bake sand bonding in terms of coremaking, molding methods, and sand processing. It discusses the points to be noted...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metal has reached that temperature, and the clay in cooler portions of the mold has not, a portion of the clay must be replaced. The amount of clay and water added in the muller must be sufficient to bond new sand that is added on each cycle (including recycled core sand, which was previously bonded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.9781627082075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... stresses and the residual stresses exceeds the yield strength or the tensile strength of the cast metal. An example is the sand cast hub shown in Fig. 4 . Although this casting was produced from malleable iron, the problem and solution are applicable also to other metals. As it was originally designed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract The primary fossil fuels are generally defined as coal, oil, natural gas, tar sands, and shale oil. This article discusses the characteristics and the types of fuels used in fossil and fuel industries. It describes the energy conversion in fuels and outlines the efficiency of a heat...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... steel sand castings, thin-wall aluminum and magnesium castings, thin-wall permanent mold castings, and thin-wall investment castings, with schematic illustrations. thin-wall investment casting thin-wall permanent mold casting thin-wall steel sand casting thin-wall aluminum casting magnesium...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... carry moisture; sand or molding materials; metal working, finishing, or die-casting die; and release lubricants as they enter the melt, the loss could be doubled. A good rule of thumb is that for every 1% contaminant contained—organics and moisture—2% melt loss will result. Charging turnings, borings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., for example, in northern climates, when warm interior air contains more moisture vapor than cold outside air. This imbalance can force the warm, moist interior air through the walls to the outside cooler, drier air. If the exterior coating material blocks or restricts this natural flow of warmer air to cooler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... velocity and blasting efficiency, with pressure-type machines, depend primarily on nozzle diameter and air pressure. Table 1 shows the consumption of air, sand, and chilled iron grit for various nozzle sizes and air pressures, and the horsepower needed to drive them. Consumption of air, horsepower...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Charge materials can contain nonmetallic inclusions from unfiltered primary or secondary ingot. Scrap materials may contain molding sand, debris from back-charged gates and runners, metalworking lubricants, paint and coatings, plastics, or unsorted and unwanted heavy-metal contaminant oxides (iron...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., the cooler gases are cleaned of dirt particles. In some designs, the gases are cleaned and then burned. Both have distinct advantages and disadvantages but are effectively used to preheat and clean the offgas stream. Oxygen Enrichment and Injection Oxygen enrichment and injection, which adds 1 to 15...
Book Chapter

By Don Smith
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... not be cross contaminated, and care should be taken not to intermix material containers. For the same reason, containers should not be reused unless a check is in place to ensure that the same material goes into the reused container. Materials should be stored at room temperature or cooler in a closed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... However, other agents may be deliberately added to the melt to control the nucleation event and the degree of undercooling. For example, this is especially important in controlling the solidification of cast iron. Because the mold is cooler than the metal, nucleation will occur all over the surface...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (such as the family of irons or the 300 series of aluminum) and molded from familiar metalcasting processes (such as green sand or nobake). Rules of thumb and lists of design considerations are available in many design handbooks and references as an aid for common design situations. However, close examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to be aligned with the principle loads, with two-thirds running fore-and-aft and the balance athwartships. The glass fibers, possibly laid off-axis (±45), reduce cost and simplify the fairing process if used for the outermost ply, because sanding through the fairing compound into the aramid is not recommended...