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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... randomly chosen sample part for natural flaws by the method to be used on production material. The size and location of any flaws that are detected by ultrasonic testing are confirmed by sectioning the part. A combination of the results of ultrasonic inspection, data from computed tomography, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... quantifying phase mixtures in powder samples. It provides information on typical sensitivity and experimental limits on precision of XRPD analysis and other systematic sources of errors that affect accuracy. Some of the factors pertinent to the estimation of crystallite size and defects are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... interferences in AAS, namely vaporization, ionization, matrix interferences, and background correction. Some of the methods for the analysis of microliter-sized samples and methods of standard additions to the sample solution for generating calibration standards are then reviewed. The article concludes with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are used to evaluate their physical and chemical properties. To ensure accurate characterization processes, it is extremely important to use adequate sampling techniques to collect representative samples for analysis. Generally, powder is a bulk material with particle size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... produce results markedly different than would be obtained from the actual casting if there are significant differences in the keel block versus casting size and their solidification and cooling rates. After the specimens are obtained, there is still a sampling problem, particularly in wrought material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... parameters of DOE. Before a test can start, it must be decided which dimensions and shapes of the investigated sample will be of major interest. These must be measured before and after heat treatment. The uncertainty of the measurement device must suit the size of the effects that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... interplanar spacings in crystalline materials Characterization of defect densities and crystallite sizes Characterization of preferred crystallographic orientations in polycrystalline samples Determination of orientations of single crystals Identification of phases or compounds present in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sample is usually ground in 200 to 400 mg of KBr or other infrared-transparent pressing powder. The sample and KBr must be ground so that the particle size is less than the wavelength of light, minimizing band distortion due to scattering effects. The matrix material must be pure and dry. Preparing a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sample, the stationary phase, and the mobile phase. Three characteristics are mainly used to drive a separation: size, electrical charge, and polarity. Separations based on size differences use particles with pores that are tuned to allow some, but not all, dissolved analytes to diffuse into the pores...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... determine grain size, one obtains a sample and produces a smooth surface on one side. This may be done in the laboratory using standard metallographic techniques. However, another procedure is more convenient with large samples, for example, when cutting through the middle of a casting. The sample is placed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... size and shape changes. The article also provides information on the carriers of distortion potential that cause measureable size and shape changes. austenitizing carburizing deformation dimensional change distortion heat treatment phase transformation steel thermal stress DIMENSIONAL...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cavity flow rate The time required for a powder sample of standard weight to flow through an orifice in a standard instrument according to a specified procedure green part The pressed part green strength A measure of the ability of a green (i.e., pressed) compact to maintain size and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Hot-rolled steel bars and other hot rolled steel shapes are produced from ingots, blooms, or billets converted from ingots, or from strand cast blooms and billets, and comprise a variety of sizes and cross sections. This article provides a brief discussion on mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... microscopic examination of field samples is often performed in forensic laboratories. The quality of the microscopic examination depends greatly on the nature of the samples. The size of the samples provided to the laboratory must be sufficient to facilitate microscopic examination. In general, the rule is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The specimen chamber of an SEM contains the sample and the primary detectors for imaging and analysis. Specimen chambers range in size from small enclosures used for tabletop SEMs housing centimeter-sized samples, to medium-range sizes typical for research-grade SEMs capable of handling up to ~20 cm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... stability of the SEM and the ability to produce a finely focused, high-current electron probe on the sample is critical to obtaining quality EBSD measurements. Typically, thermionic sources (such as tungsten or LaB 6 sources) can produce high beam currents but at the expense of beam size. Besides the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... endpoint is possible. Large-particle-sized samples can be challenging to dissolve. To expedite the process and ensure complete dissolution, large-particle-sized samples are first crushed or ground. While these two terms are often used interchangeably, crushing a sample generally produces coarser sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of rough samples over a large change in vertical height is termed depth of field, and it is this trait that gives SEM images their characteristic three-dimensional appearance. The large depth of field is made possible by the relationship between the small size of the electron probe used as related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Since these seminal discoveries during the early development of NMR, advances in sample spinning, magnetic field homogeneity and size, as well as other methods, including multidimensional NMR, have made this an indispensable characterization tool in most fields of materials science, chemistry, and...