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sample deformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... − ε ˙ 1 ) 2 } Table 3 Formulas for compression testing of isotropic material Variable or quantity Symbol or relation Uniaxial compression under uniform deformation conditions Initial sample dimensions Height ( h 0 ) Diameter ( d 0 ) Area ( A 0 ), A...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... stored internal energy during the plastic deformation of polymers can have many effects not observable with metals. One consequence of the plastic deformation of polymers is that if a plastically deformed sample is heated in the absence of external constraints, it will contract toward its original...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... nucleation cracklike interface cavities cavity growth large-faceted cavities cavity initiation creep cavitation superplastic deformation hot deformation process modeling THE FORMATION AND GROWTH of internal voids in metallic alloys are of considerable concern in components produced by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article outlines several polycrystal formulations commonly applied for the simulation of plastic deformation and the prediction of deformation texture. It discusses the crystals of cubic and hexagonal symmetry that constitute the majority of the metallic aggregates used in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article examines the deformation processes in metal-forming operations and considers the effects introduced by scale factors when microforming. It discusses the process parameters and variables affecting surface interactions, including temperature, speed, reduction, stiffness, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article provides an in-depth treatment on the deformation and recrystallization of titanium alloys. It provides information on the predominant mode of plastic deformation that occurs in titanium in terms of the most common crystallographic planes. The article explains the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article discusses physical analysis, including slab method and upper-bound method and slip-line field analysis, for calculating stress states in plastic deformation processes. It presents various validation standards and models for evaluating the criterion of fracture for use in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... details cold-rolling textures, annealing textures, and recrystallization textures of steel samples. The article concludes with a summary of texture development during cold rolling and annealing. annealing austenite cold rolling ferrite deformation THE PROCESSING OF STEEL involves five...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... examines how quench-induced residual stresses in heat treatable aluminum alloys are reduced when sufficient load is applied to cause plastic deformation. The article also shows how plastic deformation reduces residual stress. aluminum alloys heat treatment plastic deformation quenching residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... used to quantify texture. Similarly, an ODF summarizes the probability of finding crystals with given Euler angles relative to the sample reference directions. Deformation textures in unalloyed titanium and two-phase titanium alloys tend to be strong because of the low symmetry of hcp crystals and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... titanium alloy samples. The specimens in Fig. 8(a) to (c) were deformed at a temperature, T , at which α c was high. In Fig. 8(a) , ε ˙ = 10 − 3   s − 1 , and α c = 2. In Fig. 8(b) , ε ˙ = 10 − 1   s − 1 , and α c = 5. In Fig. 8(c) , ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformed samples with relatively coarse initial grains, the microstructure near the grain boundaries and the evolution of the microstructure during nucleation can be studied in considerable detail, even when thin-foil specimens parallel to the rolling plane are used for TEM examinations. Figure 17 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Forging of nickel-base alloys results in geometries that reduce the amount of machining to obtain final component shapes and involves deformation processing to refine the grain structure of components or mill products. This article discusses the heating practice, die materials, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Infrared (IR) spectra have been produced by transmission, that is, transmitting light through the sample, measuring the light intensity at the detector, and comparing it to the intensity obtained with no sample in the beam, all as a function of the infrared wavelength. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... sequence, localized plastic deformation, and microcrack initiation and propagation of these irons. crack initiation crack propagation fractography malleable iron microcracking white cast iron Fracture sequence (increasing strain) illustrating localized plastic deformation and microcrack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rotating the sample. Because satisfactory patterns can be collected in times as short as 100 ms, this allows the real-time evolution of textures to be characterized, for example, during deformation processing and heat treatment. When presenting pole figures, customarily equal-area projections are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... is a common tool used for NDE of polymeric medical device parts because it does not require coating the sample with a conductive material prior to imaging. However, some level of vacuum is still generated, which may make the tool inappropriate for devices that may offgas or deform under these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 17 ), the presence of secondary tensile stresses in 2014 containing 15 vol% Al 2 O 3 particles caused incipient cracks parallel to the compression direction ( Fig. 6 ). The presence of incipient cracking at the surface of the deformed samples defined the forging limit of the composite in that study...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... changes during tensile deformation. Texture causes the sample to function more similar to a single crystal, sometimes resulting in noncircular cross sections. Figure 28(a) shows schematically the typical surface features for a ductile fracture of a smooth (unnotched) cylindrical tensile-test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material, which are discussed in the following sections along with examples. The tools available for failure analysis are then covered. Further, the article describes the categories of mode of failure: distortion or undesired deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It provides information on the...