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salt quenching

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By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Molten salt, including nitrite/nitrate salts, is the quenching medium most commonly used in austempering and marquenching of ferrous materials. This article describes the use of molten salts in the quenching of ferrous materials. It provides information on the processing and operation...
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 33 Quenching in a molten salt occurs at a uniform rate, showing typical cooling and cooling rate curves for molten salt at 255 °C (495 °F). No agitation or water addition. Source: Ref 9 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the salt baths used for a variety of heat treatments, including heating, quenching, interrupted quenching (austempering and martempering), case hardening, and tempering. It describes two general types of salt bath systems for steel hardening...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 4 Solubility of hardening salt in quench salt vs. quench temperature More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 5 Cooling curves for 1045 steel cylinders quenched in salt, water, and oil. Thermocouples located in the geometric center. Source: Ref 5 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... requirements for oil and salt martempering of steel. austenitizing equipment requirements martempering safety precautions steel Introduction Martempering is a quench hardening process also known as interrupted quenching. According to Ref 1 , this process was discovered by D. Lewis in 1929...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... to the gaseous versions of each of these processes, which were much more environmentally friendly. Cyanide wastes, whether dissolved in quench water or in the form of solid salt from pots, pose a serious disposal problem (see the section “Disposal of Cyanide Wastes” in this article). Liquid carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... lead. Salt quenching is covered in more detail in the article “Salt Quenching” in this Volume. Allowed to transform isothermally (over several minutes or hours) to bainite at the temperature that produces the desired hardness. This is generally accomplished in a bath of molten nitrite-nitrate salt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... in cyanide-cyanate salt bath at 570 °C (1060 °F) Seat bracket Resist wear on surface 1020 steel, cyanide treated Distortion; high loss in straightening (b) 1020 nitrided 90 min in cyanide-cyanate salt bath and water quenched (c) Rocker arm shaft Resist water on surface; maintain geometry SAE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment of ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005958
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the heating equipment used for austenitizing, quenching, and tempering tool steels. These include salt bath furnaces, controlled atmosphere furnaces, fluidized-bed furnaces, and vacuum furnaces. The article discusses the types of nitriding...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 33 Examples of the microstructure of AISI M2 high-speed steel. (a) Desired quenched-and-tempered condition: 1200 °C (2200 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench, double temper at 595 °C (1100 °F). Etched with 3% nital. 500×. (b) Grain growth caused by reaustenitizing without annealing: 1220 °C More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 33 Examples of the microstructure of AISI M2 high-speed steel. (a) Desired quenched-and-tempered condition: 1200 °C (2200 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench, double temper at 595 °C (1100 °F). Etched with 3% nital. Original magnification: 500×. (b) Grain growth caused by reaustenitizing More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Quenching Power Heat-Transfer Characteristics Cooling Rates The cooling rate in a fluidized bed is higher compared to air cooling and approximately 10% lower than molten salt quenching. However, the fluidized bed can operate at lower temperatures without solidifying. A comparison of the cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The use of gases or molten salts as the quenchant for steel parts is commonly limited to the quenching of high-alloy steel or the carbonizing quenching of low-alloy steel. This article reviews the quenching process of steels with molten metals (quenchant) such as molten lead, molten...
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of C-curves for aged 2024 (T351) after solution heat treatment and two different preaging sequences. (a) Directly quenched from solution treatment into salt baths for isothermal hold times at intermediate temperatures of 400, 350, and 300 °C (750, 660, and 570 More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 14 Correlation curves for identical cooling times in end-quench hardenability specimens and round bars quenched in hot salt, oil, and water. Temperature range criteria are provided in Table 1 . Water at 25 °C (75 °F); quenching oil had a viscosity of 79 SUS at 38 °C (100 °F More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 14 Aged yield strength and hardness for 2024-T851 plate 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) thick. (a) 0.2% yield strength in ksi. (b) Rockwell B hardness. Specimens are quenched directly from solution treatment into salt baths with intermediate temperatures of 400, 350, and 300 °C (750, 660, and 570 °F More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 3 Recommended materials for parts and fixtures for salt baths Process and temperature range Electrodes Pots Thermocouple protection tubes Salt quenching at 205–400 °C (400–750 °F) Low-carbon steel Low-carbon steel Low-carbon steel, 446 Tempering at 400–675 °C (750–1250 °F) Low...
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 38 Correlation curves for identical cooling times in 9445 alloy steel end-quench hardenability specimens and round bars quenched in hot salt, oil, and water. Water was at 25 °C (75 °F); mineral oil at 50 °C (120 °F), Saybolt universal viscosity at 40 °C (100 °F) was 79 SUS; molten salt More