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ruthenium plating

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract The electroplating of platinum-group metals (PGMs) from aqueous electrolytes for engineering applications is limited principally to palladium and, to a lesser extent, to platinum, rhodium, and thin layers of ruthenium. This article provides a discussion on the plating operations of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Precious metals include gold, silver, and six platinum-group metals, namely, platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and iridium. This article focuses on the consumption, trade practices, properties, product forms, and applications of these metals and their alloys. gold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the use of noble and precious metals for biomedical applications. The noble metals include gold, platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, and osmium. The physical and mechanical properties of the noble and precious metals are presented in tables. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article characterizes the corrosion resistance of precious metals, namely, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold. It provides a discussion on the general fabricability; atomic, structural, physical, and mechanical properties; oxidation and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... activation of copper for subsequent electroless nickel plating in printed circuit board applications. The addition of ruthenium reduces the number of palladium atoms on the surface and improves the adhesion of the nickel to the copper. The electroless alloy coatings discussed in this article are produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... titanium surfaces. The titanium-palladium (Ti-Pd), titanium-ruthenium (Ti-Ru), and grade 12 alloys appear to be much more resistant to this form of localized attack. Fig. 5 Smeared surface iron pitting of unalloyed titanium tubing in hot brine service. Source: Ref 22 Several highly effective...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... work has been the development of Ti-0.2Pd, which has considerably greater resistance to corrosion in reducing environments than does unalloyed titanium (ruthenium additions have been found to have the same effect). In addition, work on alloying for thermodynamic stability has resulted in Ti-2Ni, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... viewed in cross-polarized light using a microscope with a Foster prism and a sensitive tint plate. Note the change in direction of the mechanical twins at the grain boundary. Fig. 17 Microstructure of as-polished pure ruthenium (99.95%) specimen viewed in polarized light: (a) as-cast structure...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Platinum 75 150 Palladium 250 450 Rhodium 8 12 Iridium 1 3 Ruthenium 71 100 Osmium 1 (a) 1 (a) All osmium is included in this number. Source: U.S. Bureau of Mines Many of the techniques discussed for processing precious metals recycled from electronics...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... interface on YSZ has been shown to increase power density over a simple YSZ electrolyte for thin film cells ( Ref 12 ). Ruthenium/YSZ cermet anodes for tubular cells are reported to exhibit reduced anode polarization during use, presumably due to the finer structure present compared to conventional YSZ...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be cold worked, and iridium can be cold worked with difficulty, only after a fibrous structure has been imparted by careful hot working. Ruthenium and osmium have a hcp structure. Osmium is completely unworkable and ruthenium very nearly so. In general, the only problems special to working of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... chemical behavior (will react with acids). But as stated above, because of the chemical activities of the metallic elements, thin oxides rapidly form on freshly bare surfaces of most metals. Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold are the exceptions. These eight metals...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Lithium 0.534 0.019 Manganese 7.43 0.270 Mercury 13.546 0.489 Molybdenum 10.22 0.369 Niobium 8.57 0.310 Osmium 22.583 0.816 Plutonium 19.84 0.717 Potassium 0.86 0.031 Rhenium 21.04 0.756 Rhodium 12.44 0.447 Ruthenium 12.2 0.441 Selenium 4.79 0.174...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cementite plates of pearlite may simply be bent adjacent to some scratches and may be completely fragmented adjacent to others. Austenitic steels generally are quite susceptible to abrasion artifacts, and the common etchants reveal effects due to prior deformation with considerable sensitivity. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-solution strengtheners of the alpha phase. Alloying elements to improve corrosion resistance include nickel, molybdenum, palladium, and ruthenium. Additionally, silicon is added to titanium alloys to improve creep resistance in amounts ranging from 0.08 to 0.45 wt%. More detailed information of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... in corrosion resistance. Chromium protected uranium in boiling water, but protection was lost in chloride solutions. Bismuth and tin additions formed pyrophoric phases. Cerium, rhodium, and ruthenium increased the corrosion rate. Some elements showed synergistic effects (e.g., U-Nb-Zr), but their...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...+ ⇄ Pu 3+ 1 M HClO 4 or, to avoid iron interference, 5.5 M HCl, 0.015 M sulfamic acid, NaH 2 PO 4 Rhodium Hg Rh 3+ → Rh(Hg) 0.2 M HCl Ruthenium Pt Ru 4+ → Ru 3+ 5 M HCl Silver Pt Ag + → Ag(s) 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 Technetium Hg Tc 7+ → Tc 3+ Acetate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... 3900 2357 4274 … … Rubidium 88 190 123 253 165 329 217 423 679 1254 Ruthenium 2058 3736 2230 4046 2431 4408 2666 4831 … … Tantalum 2599 4710 2820 5108 … … … … … … Thallium 461 862 500 932 606 1123 660 1220 1457 2655 Thorium 1831 3328 2000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... water contained caustic soda (NaOH) or the boiler water chemistry was conducive to the formation of caustic soda ( Ref 4 ). In their 1926 paper, “The Cause and Prevention of Embrittlement of Boiler Plate,” researchers at the University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station concluded, “The results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (IC-221) 2.5 0.08 Nickel aluminide (IC-218) 2.9 0.09 Nickel aluminide (IC-50) 4.1 0.1 Nickel aluminide (IC-50, plasma weld overlay) 7.0 0.2 Stellite 21 (stick) 7.3 0.2 Iron aluminide 11.6 0.4 Nitronic 60 bar stock 12.8 0.4 Aluminum oxide ceramic plate 18.4 0.6...