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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 4 Multiend roving process production More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... such as continuous roving, woven roving, fiberglass mat, chopped strand, and textile yarns. glass fiber oxide composition mechanical properties physical properties general-purpose glass fiber special-purpose glass fiber glass melting fiber forming GLASS FIBERS are among the most versatile...
Book Chapter

By Karl K. Chang
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0009242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... yarns, rovings, woven fabrics, discontinuous staple and spun yarns, fabrics, and pulp. Key representative properties of para-aramid fibers are listed in a table. The article reviews the properties of aramid fibers, including tensile modulus, tensile strength, creep and fatigue, compressive properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., splices, or changes in cross-sectional volume. The most common and least expensive form of continuous reinforcement is roving, which consists of continuous axial filaments in single- and multiple-strand configurations. Glass rovings are designated by their yield, which is defined by the number...
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 11 Recommended chemical-resistant laminate construction. A, layer with surfacing veils impregnated with 90 to 95% resin; B, two-layer laminate having 450 g/m 2 powder-bonded mat, preferably with 20 Tex ECR fiber, or an equal thickness made of a silane-sized ECR spray roving (glass More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in the form of rovings or tows (fiber bundles) are wound over a rotating male mandrel. The filament-winding machine ( Fig. 1 ) traverses the wind eye at speeds that are synchronized with the mandrel rotation, controlling the winding angle of the reinforcement and the fiber lay-down rate. The mandrel can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., that is, there is not sufficient resin present to wet and/or impregnate all the fibers by the manual consolidation operation (homogenization process). Consequently, this will result in a drop of properties, as indicated in Fig. 1 . The use of woven roving (WR) and multiaxial fabrics makes it possible to tailor the direction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... machine are the reinforcement handling system (referred to as roving and mat creels), the resin impregnation station, and the material forming (or preforming) area. The pultrusion machine consists of component equipment that heats the input materials, cures the reactive resin, pulls the product through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for reinforcements, can be applied to the dry roving at the time of winding, which is known as wet winding. They may also be applied prior to winding as a tow or tape prepreg and used promptly or refrigerated. Usually the cure of the filament-wound composite is conducted at elevated temperatures without vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... available: oxide fibers based primarily on alumina and alumina- silica systems, nonoxide systems based on silicon carbide, boron fibers, and carbon fibers. Two general fiber forms are available: tow-based fibers that are typically small diameter (<20 µm) multifilament rovings or tows and monofilaments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... or molding. interwoven in such a way that no two yarns bare glass. Glass, such as yarns, rovings, and bismaleimide (BMI). A type of polyimide that are twisted around each other. fabrics, from which the sizing or nish has cures by an addition rather than a condensa- braiding. (1) Weaving of bers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... the microstructure of the component. The type of reinforcement—continuous fiber, short fiber, whiskers, chopped roving, woven or braided fabrics, or preforms—and its orientation greatly affect the performance of the component. Indeed, the ability to tailor a component increases its range of functionality as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., that is, compressed more at a given pressure than woven rovings or multiaxials. A typical compression graph of a random mat is shown in Fig. 9 . Note that the compaction pressure available during processing is the ambient pressure (approximately 100 kPa, or 1000 mbar) minus the pressure within the vacuum bag...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Book Chapter

By Tim Pepper
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Chopped-strand mat 30 1.50 117 17.0 10.80 1.566 3.5 197 28.6 9.784 1.419 147 21.3 50 1.70 288 41.8 16.70 2.422 3.5 197 28.6 14.49 2.102 160 23.2 Roving fabric 60 1.76 314 45.5 19.50 2.828 3.6 317 46.0 15.00 2.175 192 27.8 Woven glass fabric 70 1.88 331...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... content consistency, as well as fiber mobility and mechanical property performance. Unidirectional/random hybrid glass mat (dry layed, needled) is a highly directionalized reinforcement structure made from a combination of unidirectional rovings and orthotropic fibers. Such composites have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, strands, rovings, and tows by the tensile loading to failure of the resin-impregnated fiber forms. This technique loses accuracy as the filament count increases. Strain and Young's modulus are measured by extensometer. The purpose of using impregnating resin...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... several forms. A chopped-strand mat consists of short fibers held together with a binder. Mats are classified by the fiber length and weight per unit area. Woven fabric consists of glass yarns or tows of various diameters that are woven into fabrics of a specified weave and fiber count. Woven rovings...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... roving into 25.4 mm (1 in.) lengths. After the glass falls to the resin bed, another carrier film with another layer of paste is added on top, sandwiching the glass between the two layers. When the paste is first mixed and put in the SMC machine, it has the consistency of pancake batter. After...