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Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Trepanning is used in at least four distinct production applications: round disks, large shallow through holes, circular grooves, and deep holes. This article provides an overview of the first three applications. It describes the machines, tools, techniques, and cutting fluids used...
Image
Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 7 Out-of-roundness measurements on test disks after hardening and tempering. Test disks machined from 102 mm (4 in.) diam bars. (a) AISI M2. (b) ASP 30 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 6 Out-of-roundness measurements on test disks after hardening and tempering. Test disks machined from 102 mm (4 in.) diam bars. (a) AISI M2. (b) ASP 30 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of the disks the measurement program included two and three roundness plots, respectively. In addition, four flatness scans along circles were each measured at different radii at the top and bottom surface ( Fig. 10 ). According to the measurement program, the following size and shape alterations were analyzed...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
kPa (45 psi). Restore roundness of cylinder by rerolling several times in three-roll former. Form bead on one end of cylinder, in four passes in an edger. Roll flange on opposite end of cylinder, in two passes. Trim flange. Vapor degrease. Weld (Heliarc) disk to inside of flange More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of different phases, and fiber and sample edge rounding and relief. abrasive sizing automated grinding composites erosion fiber pull-out final polishing grinding machines hand grinding matrix smears optical analysis polishing machines rough grinding rough polishing sample edge rounding...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
.... Finally, a stigmator coil is used to correct minor beam aberrations and ensure a round beam at the workpiece. There also must be some means of deflecting the beam. Again, electromagnetic coils are used to accomplish this function. First, a coil is used to bend the beam around a corner so...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of irregularly shaped abrasive grains in all grinding operations. This article will discuss grinding wheels and disks, coated abrasives, and grinding machines and processes. These processes include: Rough grinding Precision grinding Surface grinding Cylindrical grinding Centerless grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... with no visible artifacts and with less than 1 4 μm edge rounding. Up to this point in the preparation procedure, it is not recommended that hand polishing be used, because precise control of the sample is necessary, and deviations will cause the brittle fibers to fracture. Because the fibers do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... and the friction material wear at a temporarily high rate, called break-in wear. Brake lining wear rates are usually stabilized by the time the major brake drum or disk asperities have been rounded. Normally the lining break-in wear volume is small compared to the total available wear volume. Brake Torque...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... appropriate in the context of erosive wear testing. Qualitative descriptors such as “rounded,” “subangular,” “angular,” and so on, are often used and may be adequate in conjunction with a more detailed specification of the material and source of the erodent particles. For these reasons, it is important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... from straightness in round bars can be expressed either as camber (deviation from a straight line) or as total indicator reading (TIR) per unit of length. Total indicator reading, which is twice the camber, is measured by rotating a round bar on its axis on rollers or centers and recording the needle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Polishing (or setup) wheels were the original means of abrading a product for finishing purposes. Although still used, they have been largely replaced by abrasive belts, which offer better performance, greater consistency, and reduced labor. Polishing wheels are disks made of materials such as cloth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... crusher wear, electronic circuit board drill wear, grinding plate wear failure analysis, impact wear of disk cutters, and identification of abrasive wear modes in martensitic steels. abrasive wear failures abrasive wear mechanisms adhesive wear erosive-type wear wear failure analysis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... crusher or specks of dirt between a computer hard disk drive and the reading head. The imposed constraint is pivotal in the level of contact pressures generated between abrasive and wear surface. The relative motion is also directly affected. In some cases, the trapped body may roll much more than...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of a distinct yield stress in a semisolid material significantly modifies its rheological behavior. Both experiments and numerical simulations show that, depending on the flow velocity and yield stress of a semisolid slurry, there are five distinct die-filling patterns during semisolid processing: shell, disk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Normal load, N Unit load, N/cm 2 Speed, m/s Abrasive area, m 2 Total available path length, m Pin rotation, rpm Robin (13) Pin-on-disk Circular 15 12.4 9.8 1.14 N/A N/A No Khruschov (14) Pin-on-disk Spiral 2 2.9 94 0.5 0.05 45 No Richardson (15) Pin-on-disk Spiral...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of cracking during the rolling of 2024-T351 aluminum alloy bars. The intent was to roll square bars into round wire without resolutioning. Rolling was done on a two-high reversible bar mill with 230 mm (9 in.) diam rolls at 30 rpm (approximate strain rate: 4 s −1 ). The roll groove geometry is shown in Fig...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... metals production, where the speed of production and the control of microstructure must be maintained, the radial forge produces bars and billets from ingots or intermediate cogs. (See the article “Practical Aspects of Converting Ingot to Billet” in this Volume.) Rounds, squares, flats, or other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., composition, austenitizing, and tempering on microstructure. Macroexamination Specimen selection is generally based on the original ingot locations. Sampling is usually performed after primary hot working to billet or bloom shapes. Disks 12 to 25 mm (0.5 to 1.0 in.) thick are most often cut from billet...