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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...- and double-V-groove weld joints Fig. 18 Welding edge preparations for wide root openings. (a), (b), and (c) Backing bars. (d) Spacer bar Fig. 20 Use of back gouging for complete penetration. (a) Complete penetration of weld with back gouging. (b) Incomplete penetration of weld prior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... 0.125 370–420 24–30 1.4–2.3 50–80 25.4 1.000 Double-V, 60° (f) 4 2.39 0.094 8.4–9.4 330–370 0.310 0.208 370–420 24–30 1.4–2.3 50–80 (a) Zero root opening. (b) Root opening, 2.3 mm (0.090 in.). (c) Pulse voltage of 55 V, except for metal 4.83 mm (0.190 in.) thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... coppers using EWTh-2 electrodes, ERCu welding rod, and DCEN Workpiece thickness Root opening (a) Electrode diameter Welding rod diameter Shielding gas (b) Gas flow rate Current, A Travel speed Preheat Number of passes mm in. mm in. mm in. mm in. L/min ft 3 /h m/min in./min...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Parameters for manual GTAW of 1.6 mm (0.062 in.) thick alloy 400 Table 2 Parameters for manual GTAW of 1.6 mm (0.062 in.) thick alloy 400 Joint type Beveled butt, 1.6 mm ( 1 16 in.) root opening Electrode 2.4 mm ( 3 32 in.) diam EWTh-2, tapered to 0.4 mm ( 1 64...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... single- or double-bevel, V-, J-, or U-grooves. These methods are described in the Section “Forming” in this Handbook. No preparation is needed for a square groove weld. The members can be abutted in the same plane. If there is zero root opening, the weld arc essentially fuses the members together...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... groove weld. The members can be abutted in the same plane. If there is zero root opening, the weld arc essentially fuses the members together. Usually, very little or no weld metal bridges the weld members, although some weld metal or reinforcement may be left on the top and bottom surfaces. Similarly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... shielding Table 2 Typical procedures for manual gas tungsten arc welding of butt joints in aluminum with alternating current and argon shielding Section thickness Welding position (a) Joint geometry (b) Root opening No. of weld passes Filler rod diameter Electrode diameter Welding current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in weld metal; 5, toe crack in base metal; 6, underbead crack in base metal; 7, fusion-line crack; 8, root crack in weld metal; 9, hat cracks in weld metal Hot cracking refers to cracking phenomena that occur during fabrication due to the presence of liquid in the microstructure. Hot cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., depending on their positions in the weld. Check cracks are open to the surface and extend only partway through the weld. Root cracks extend from the root to some point within the weld. Full centerline cracks may extend from the root to the face of the weld metal. Check cracks are caused either by high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... , and Tremblay J. , “Method and Apparatus for Controlling Root Pass Penetration in Open Butt Joints,” U.S. Patent 4,733,051 , Canadian Patents and Development Limited , Ottawa, Canada , March 22 , 1988 59. Zhang G.J. , Chen S.B. , and Wu L. , Intelligent Control of Pulsed GTAW...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...) is beveled and fitted, leaving a root opening at the joint that is then welded with a filler metal of sufficiently high alloy content to prevent cracking of the weld after dilution by the carbon steel. The welding procedure should be controlled to hold penetration to a minimum. A disadvantage of this method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...Comparison of weldability tests for fabrication Table 1 Comparison of weldability tests for fabrication Test Fields of use Controllable variables Type of data Specific equipment Cost Lehigh restraint test Weld metal hot and cold cracks, root cracks, HAZ hydrogen cracks, stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... as well as the welding process and procedure should model those of the weldment as closely as possible. Some modifications of the weldment may be allowed, such as increasing the root opening by 6 mm ( 1 4 in.) or buttering the groove faces with the weld metal to be tested. The surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in the joint. The joint should be clamped to prevent separation during welding. Dimensions of typical joints for welding titanium and titanium alloys Table 2 Dimensions of typical joints for welding titanium and titanium alloys Base-metal thickness Root opening (a) Groove angle, degrees Weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... particles are present at the end of the flame, the volume of gas should be increased until the flame burns clear ( Fig. 6a ). As the oxygen valve in the torch is progressively opened and the ratio of oxygen to acetylene increases, the flame becomes generally luminous. Then, the luminous portion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., there are specific locations in and around welds where fatigue crack initiation is expected (depending on the direction of loading) and when there is a sufficient stress range and enough cycles, such as at weld toes, at the ends of welds, and from the roots of fillet or partial joint-penetration groove welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Their orientation follows the contour of the HAZ. Longitudinal cracks (No. 4, Fig. 6 ) may exist in three forms, depending on their positions in the weld. Check cracks are open to the surface and extend only partway through the weld. Root cracks extend from the root to some point within the weld. Full...
Book Chapter

By K. Sampath
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... employ bevel angles and root openings to enhance accessibility to the welding torch (or electrode) and provide adequate weld penetration. The best bevel angles provide adequate accessibility while reducing the amount of weld metal required to complete the joint. Currently, computer-based software tools...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Distress damages Vibration Short/open circuit Failed components Sleeve bearing Seal Coupling Shaft Pinion/ball/turning gear Casing Rotor Impeller Shroud Piston Diaphragm Wheel Blades; foil, root, shroud Labyrinth Thrust bearing Pivoted pad bearing Roller/ball bearing Cross-head piston Cylinder...