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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Computer simulation of microstructural evolution during hot rolling of steels is a major topic of research and development in academia and industry. This article describes the methodology and procedures commonly employed to develop microstructural evolution models to simulate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... described. The article discusses the recrystallization behavior of alloy AA 3104 during the interstand times in between two consecutive hot rolling passes with the help of combined microstructure models. microstructure aluminum sheets deformation-texture evolution modeling Al-Mn-Mg alloys...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Ring rolling is a process for creating seamless ring shaped components using specialized equipment and forming processes. This article provides information on the applications of ring rolling. It discusses the types of machines used for ring rolling, namely, vertical rolling machines...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Thread rolling is a cold-forming process for producing threads or other helical or annular forms by rolling the impression of hardened steel dies into the surface of a cylindrical or conical blank. Methods that use cylindrical dies are classified as radial infeed, tangential feed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The primary objectives of the rolling process are to reduce the cross section of the incoming material while improving its properties and to obtain the desired section at the exit from the rolls. This article illustrates a rolling sequence for the fabrication of bars, shapes, and flat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of terms related to metalworking operations that produce shapes from forging, extrusion, drawing, and rolling operations. drawing extrusion forging rolling ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Roll forging is a process for simultaneously reducing the cross-sectional area and changing the shape of heated bars, billets, or plates. This article provides an overview of the process capabilities, production techniques, machines and machine size selection considerations, and types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The processing of steel involves five distinct sets of texture development mechanisms, namely, austenite deformation, austenite recrystallization, gamma-to-alpha transformation, ferrite deformation, and static recrystallization during annealing after cold rolling. This article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Metalworking is one of the three major technologies used to fabricate metal products. This article tabulates the classification of metal forming processes. It discusses different types of metalworking equipment, including rolling mills, ring-rolling machines, and thread-rolling and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Thermomechanical processing (TMP) refers to various metal forming processes that involve careful control of thermal and deformation conditions to achieve products with required shape specifications and good properties. This article describes TMP methods in producing hot-rolled steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the roll forming of components of nickel, titanium, and aluminum alloys. The metallurgical characteristics of the roll formed components, such as macrostructures, microstructures, tensile strength, and stress rupture performance, are discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the rolls during the forming process. The flow forming methods include staggered-roll flow forming process and in-line flow-forming process. Typical mechanical properties of flow-formed materials in various conditions are summarized in a table. Proper process controls and subsequent product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Control of grain flow is one of the major advantages of shaping metal parts by rolling, forging, or extrusion. This article shows the effects of anisotropy on mechanical properties. Cylindrical forgings commonly have a straight parting line located in a diametral plane. The alternate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... homogeneous effective medium (HEM). The article analyzes the anisotropy predictions of rolled face-centered-cubic and body centered-cubic sheets and presents simulations of the axial deformation of hexagonal-close-packed zirconium. The applications of polycrystal constitutive models to the simulation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article also provides formulas for flat rolling, conical-die extrusion, wire drawing, deep drawing of cups from sheet metal, and bending, and formulas for anisotropic sheet materials. bending conical-die extrusion deep drawing flat rolling sheet metal forming strain strain rate stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... practice of open-die forging, with some practical examples. The article illustrates macrosegregation in a large steel ingot and lists the forgeable alloys. It reviews the physical and mathematical models used in deformation modeling. The article explains the contour forging and roll planishing process. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... scheme, including testing procedures and specific process measurements, that facilitate the application of workability concepts. Using examples, the article applies these concepts to forging, rolling, and extrusion processes. The stress and strain environments described in the article suggest that a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., respectively, depending on the stacking-fault energy of a metal. Stacking faults in crystalline structures are planar-type defects that influence hardening and recrystallization (see the article “Plastic Deformation Structures” in this Volume). Fig. 2 Hot working effects on microstructure. (a) Rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... compaction, extrusion) or the working of ingot-metallurgy products (e.g., extrusion, forging, rolling, and sheet forming) ( Ref 2 ). This article reviews the current status of bulk deformation processes for some of the more common aluminide and silicide intermetallic alloys. Special attention is focused on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... selection of deformation process. Parts having a uniform cross section along one dimension can be produced by rolling (e.g., sheet metal, bars, structural I-beam), drawing (e.g., copper wire), or extrusion (e.g., aluminum window frame). Such parts can also be cut along the cross section perpendicular to the...