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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of austenitic stainless steels and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the following: fatigue-crack fracture, rock...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys. Hardfacing applications for wear control vary widely, ranging from very severe abrasive wear service, such as rock crushing and pulverizing to applications to minimize metal-to-metal wear. This article discusses the types of hardfacing alloys, namely iron-base alloys, nonferrous alloys, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workpiece rotates. In this manner, the forging force acts on only a small portion of the workpiece at any one time. Fig. 2 Schematic of (a) rocking-die forge and (b) sample patterns of upper die motion Fig. 3 Examples of die motion in rotary forging. (a) Upper die has both translational...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... component deterioration occurs in a wide variety of equipment, such as bulldozer blades, excavator teeth, rock drill bits, crushers, slushers, ball mills and rod mills, chutes, slurry pumps, and cyclones. However, abrasive wear is not limited to these activities. Abrasion presents problems in many wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the element mass can be combined into a single value by appropriate statistical procedures. Table 1 Typical instrumental neutron activation analysis sensitivities for elements in rock or soil samples 20 min after irradiation Element Radioisotope detected ( t 1/2 ) Indicator γ-rays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Figure 717 shows a transverse fracture in the stem of a valve with a hardness of 37 HRC. The stem rocked within the valve retainers, initiating many fatigue cracks around the periphery of the stem; these cracks later joined to form two main crack fronts. Very well-defined beach marks are visible in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... centimeter for typical targets often encountered in PIXE analysis: low- Z (atomic number) targets, such as air filters and biological samples; medium- Z targets, such as silicon chips, rocks, and pottery; and high- Z targets, such as transition metals. In addition, the thicknesses of targets necessary to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... effective anticorrosion material, but it is unlike other products used to protect pipes and fittings. For example, wax is not rock-hard yet it has excellent service life. That is partly because it is chemically inert. Wax can also take many forms; it can be wrapped, poured, dipped, sprayed, brushed, spread...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... detector eliminates some of the systematic instrumentation mass discrimination effects mentioned above. Measurements are made on many replicates of gas escaping from the rock matrix and span a range of isotopic ratios (partial pressures). Figure 9 demonstrates that mixing of mantle-gas sources with air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Penetration by rocks Lack of flexibility Water penetration Exposure to heat Exposure to cold Outdoor weathering Chemical attack Cathodic disbondment damage Not all of these factors occur in the underground environment. Coating systems can be subjected to adverse environmental...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., mining, quarrying, oil well drilling, steelmaking, railroading, dredging, lumbering, cement manufacture, and clay production. Austenitic manganese steel is used in equipment for handling and processing earthen materials (such as rock crushers, grinding mills, dredge buckets, power shovel buckets and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., a naturally occurring oxide of tin, is by far the most economically important tin mineral. The bulk of the world's tin ore is obtained from low-grade placer deposits of cassiterite derived from primary ore bodies or from veins associated with granites or rocks of granitic composition. Primary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for wrought aluminum products Brinell hardness No., 500 kgf, 10 mm ball, HBS Vickers hardness No., 15 kgf, HV Rock well hardness No. Rockwell superficial hardness No. B scale, 100 kgf, 1 16 in. ball, HRB E scale, 100 kgf, 1 8 in. ball...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... propensity for attack, and the specific applications in such diverse areas as steel, glass, aluminum, and chemical-resistant applications. Concrete has two components: aggregates (usually sand, gravel, or crushed rock) and paste (cement plus water) to hold the aggregate together. The quality of any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... exposure, a so-called equimisorientation contour can be obtained on the recording plate, as shown in Fig. 19 . Therefore, a contour map can be generated by rocking the crystal through the perfect Bragg condition with small steps of angular rotation and taking exposure at each step. According to Bragg’s...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., Inc. New Berlin, WI Heavy-section carbon and low-alloy steels are susceptible to “rock candy fracture” or concoidal fracture if the steel contains excessive amounts of nitrogen and aluminum. Aluminum-nitrogen precipitates form at the austenite grain boundaries if the casting is cooled slowly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-contaminated region it followed the scale network, delineating prior-austenite grain boundaries. Under repeated impacts, the fracture advanced further by low-cycle fatigue until part failure occurred by cleavage. Fig. 146 : “Rock candy” portion of fracture surface where fracture followed scale network...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., semicircular grooved dies are rolled or rocked back and forth along the tube while a tapered mandrel inside the tube controls the inside diameter and wall thickness. The process yields tube having very accurate dimensions and better concentricity than can be achieved by tube drawing. The grooves in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction (μXRD) is a tool for the examination of materials in situ. Samples are either part of a rock, slab, or polished thin section, or they are encased in a medium, such as epoxy, a capillary, etc. This allows for the sampling of specimens ranging from single crystals to fine-grained mixtures. Unlike...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... reactive aggregates exist throughout North America, ASR distress in concrete is not that common because of the measures taken to control it. It is also important to note that not all ASR gel reactions produce destructive swelling. Alkali-carbonate reactions are observed with certain dolomitic rocks...