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risk-benefit analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... implants play an important role in society. These devices can provide great benefit by increasing the quality and length of our lives. However, implants are often subjected to aggressive environmental and mechanical conditions within the human body that challenge both devices and designers. Nonimplantable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., measurements, and samples taken during the site investigation provide maximum benefit to the determination of the cause of the failure. This article discusses the standard conduct of coating failure investigation. It must be recognized, however, that each failure is different, and accordingly, a specific...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... failure modes, and it is used to quantify the effects of the failure modes in terms of the risk they pose to the end user or the integrity of the product prior to being put to use by the end customer. When done correctly, the FMEA is one of the most valuable tools for understanding potential variation and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... challenge in engineering design. Performance specifications, risk and hazard analysis, design process, design for manufacture and assembly, design for quality, reliability in design, and redesign are considered for functional requirements. Life-cycle analysis considers raw-material extraction from the earth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... advantages gained from decision theory, the practical realization of scene interpretation does not directly benefit from the theory because it is difficult, sometimes impossible, to predetermine the required probability parameters. The concepts are only applied to verify the validity of a certain pattern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... benefit to the patient associated with its use. ISO 10993-17 states that “among the risks to be considered are those arising from exposure to leachable substances arising from medical devices.” This standard provides a method for calculating maximum tolerable levels that may be used by “other standards...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... be used as part of the overall polymer analysis to better understand its characteristics and if these could pose any risks (e.g., whether the polymer is stable and not likely to degrade, possibly liberating chemicals). To help identify the appropriate biological tests to conduct, the FDA provides...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... potential lies in techniques for their avoidance. Some casting operations are already taking the first steps in such new technology and benefiting technically and commercially. The oxide film on the surface of a liquid can become entrained in the bulk liquid. The entrainment action is an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...% Cu have also found use as bearing alloys in automobiles. These alloys are manufactured using thermal treatments designed to produce structures that avoid a continuous network of the tin in order to obviate the risk of susceptibility to corrosion by the presence of moisture ( Ref 56 ). With normal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (separated) X-ray CT is a radiological technique and has many of the same benefits and limitations as film and real-time radiography. The primary difference is the nature of the radiological image. Radiography compresses the structural information from a 3-D volume into a 2-D image. This is useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metal ion sources, and medium vacuum for plasma sources. It is typical for the sample chamber to be 1 × 10 6 torr or better (lower pressure), but some applications will have more demanding vacuum levels for the benefit of sample cleanliness. A typical FIB system will have integrated turbo pumps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... benefit and a problem. If heat is being rapidly extracted at the part surface by the quenchant, the high conductivity results in rapid temperature losses in thin sections and large temperature differences between thick and thin sections. If heat is being extracted more slowly, the high metal conductivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of not complying with these ideals is outweighed by the benefits to the patient; examples of this are total hip and knee implants. This means that the risk of not complying with these ideals is considered less than the benefits to the patient. The implantation of a total hip or knee device provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... substrate corrosion control performance when applied to threaded fasteners, connectors, and general hardware ( Ref 2 , 3 ). The technical performance benefits and limitations associated with cadmium coatings are well established. However, over the past decade, environmental and worker health regulations...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... involves molten aluminum and large quantities of water in its operations. Conditions may result in the risk of explosions, ranging from minor to violent reactions, affecting equipment, facilities, and the safety of personnel. The most serious safety concerns are related to the DC process and its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... development of medical devices intended to benefit patients in the treatment or diagnosis of diseases and conditions affecting fewer that 4000 people per year.” Here, limited use of HDE devices is based on two fundamental ideas: From a clinical perspective, patient risk is outweighed by patient benefit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-flow nebulizers is the larger inner diameter of the capillary, thus reducing the risk of clogging. In general, cross-flow nebulizers are used when large samples must be analyzed and precision in the analysis is less important. The ultrasonic nebulizer exhibits favorable performance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The design process for ceramic materials is more complex than that of metals because of low-strain tolerance, low fracture toughness and brittleness. The application of structural ceramics to engineering systems hinges on the functional benefits to be derived and is manifested in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., commonly referred to as the POD curve. This curve is commonly plotted as detection capability in terms of percentage of detection as a function of defect size. This curve can be used as one of multiple inputs to calculate risk of failure or other related safety factors when NDE-based inspections are used...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... potential of the pressurized system was promising, in practice the benefits were eliminated by poor front-end design. Finally, the pressurization effect resulted in very fast delivery of melt into the mold cavity, where the high velocity (once again, much higher than the critical velocity) had the potential...