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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 13 Treatment of rinses from nitriding operations. ORP, oxidation-reduction potential Ref 9 More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 2 Fumeless rinse tank compared to bright dip tank next to it More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 15 Rack of hard anodized components exiting a rinse tank after the anodizing process. Supplementary spraying is underway to facilitate rinsing. Courtesy of Impreglon Surface Engineering, Kaufbeuren, Germany More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 1 Schematic of a hot water rinse station in a spray phosphating line More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the types, composition, and applications of phosphate coatings and describes the characteristics of phosphate-coated ferrous and nonferrous materials, including steel and aluminum. It addresses five successive process fundamentals: cleaning, rinsing, phosphating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... possible in crystalline phosphate layers are illustrated. The article presents four chemically important phosphating steps, namely, cleaning, activation or conditioning, phosphating, and posttreatment plus standard rinsing. It describes the physical and chemical properties by gravimetric analysis, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04F.a0007014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... Abstract This article presents a detailed discussion on the characteristics, types, properties, quenchants, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of various types of quenching: air quenching, water quenching, rinse quenching, time quenching, press quenching, delayed quenching, fluidized...
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 8 “Clean only” metal preparation, spray process Stage Solution composition Temperature Cycle time, seconds °C °F 1-Prewash Tap water Ambient to 71 Ambient to 160 30–60 2-Wash Alkaline cleaner, 7.5–22.5 g/L (1–3 oz/gal) 60–71 140–160 60–90 3-Rinse Tap More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Alkaline cleaner Titanated, alkali 6.0 g/L (5.0 × 10 −2 lb/gal) 60–65 140–150 70 4 Hot rinse Water 55–60 130–150 150 5 Activated water rinse Titanated, 7.5–8.5 pH 0.5 g/L (4 × 10 −3 lb/gal) 40–45 104–115 35 6 Zinc phosphate ClO 3 accelerated (a) 50–55 122–130 70 7 Rinse More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 6 Cathodic electrodeposition coating system. (1) Load area. (2) Conveyor. (3) Pretreatment. (4) Deionized water rinse. (5) Electrodeposition tank. (6) Recirculated permeate rinse. (7) Fresh permeate rinse. (8) Deionized water rinse. (9) Dryoff. (10) Curing oven. (11) Deionized quench More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 7 “Clean only” metal preparation, immersion process Stage Solution composition Temperature Cycle time, min °C °F 1-Clean Alkaline cleaner 30–60 g/L (4–8 oz/gal) 82–100 180–212 5–15 2-Clean Alkaline cleaner 30–60 g/L (4–8 oz/gal) 82–100 180–212 5–15 3-Rinse More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... hydrocarbon-based oils, salts, and water-based materials. Treatment of spent aqueous solutions and rinse water can also often be accomplished on site. Disadvantages These systems generally require wash, rinse, and dry stages as a minimum. This often means that additional floor space is required...
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Published: 01 January 1994
No. Type Composition Operating temperature Cycle time, min °C °F 1 Acid pickle H 2 SO 4 , 25 wt% 71 160 2 2 Cold rinse Water (a) RT RT 1 1 4 3 Alkaline rinse NaNO 2 , 2.4 g/L (2.0 × 10 −2 lb/gal) (b) 66 150 1 1 4 4 Alkaline cleaner Alkali, 0.7 g More
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Published: 01 January 1994
(6.5 ft/min), and the production rate was 4000 pieces/h. Solution No. Solution Composition Operating temperature Cycle time, min °C °F 1 Alkaline cleaner Alkali, 3.8 g/L (3.2 × 10 −2 lb/gal) 82 180 1 2 Hot rinse Water (a) 77 170 0.75 3 Cold rinse Water (b) RT More
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Published: 01 December 1998
1–3 2 Warm rinse Water 49–60 120–140 1 2 –4 1 2 –1 3 Cold rinse Water Ambient Ambient 2–4 1 2 –1 4 Pickle (d) H 2 SO 4 , 6–8% 66–71 150–160 5–10 3–5 5 Cold rinse Water, H 2 SO 4 (e) Ambient Ambient 1 2 –4 1 2 –1 More
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Published: 01 January 1994
1–3 2 Warm rinse Water 49–60 120–140 1 2 –4 1 2 –1 3 Cold rinse Water Ambient Ambient 2–4 1 2 –1 4 Pickle (d) H 2 SO 4 , 6–8% 66–71 150–160 5–10 3–5 5 Cold rinse Water, H 2 SO 4 (e) Ambient Ambient 1 2 –4 1 2 –1 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 48 Connecting rod processed with magnetic particles and imaged. (a) Before rinsing. (b) After rinsing. Courtesy of Y.F. Cheu, General Motors Technical Center More
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Published: 01 January 1994
steel 2 Cold rinse Water … Ambient (c) Low-carbon steel 3 Acid pickle (d) 100% H 3 PO 4 Water (b) 481–820 (65–110) bal 21–32 (70–90) 1 6 – 1 4 Low-carbon steel (e) 4 Caustic dip NaOH 50 (6.6) 21–82 (70–180) 1 2 Low-carbon steel 5 Acid More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... to the soft, easily marred surface. Clear lacquer may be applied to protect the matte finish produced by the etching process. Before being lacquered, the work must be cleaned of etching smut, thoroughly rinsed in clean, cold water, and dried in warm air. Lacquering or painting should be done as soon...
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Published: 01 January 1994
, and M1A Solution Type of solution Constituents Amount, g/L (oz/gal) Operating temperature, °C (°F) Cycle time, min Tank material 1 Alkaline cleaner (a) (a) 88–100 (190–212) 3–10 Low-carbon steel 2 Cold rinse Water … Ambient (b) Low-carbon steel 3 Acid pickle (c More