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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the types, composition, and applications of phosphate coatings and describes the characteristics of phosphate-coated ferrous and nonferrous materials, including steel and aluminum. It addresses five successive process fundamentals: cleaning, rinsing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the first endpoint during titration of 10 mL bath sample. Total acid is related to the second endpoint. Characteristic Amorphous phosphate layers Crystalline phosphate layers Alkali phosphating (iron phosphating) No-rinse-phosphating (dry-in-place phosphating) Low-zinc phosphating Standard-zinc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Maintenance Rinse Water Quality Hot Tank Systems Dip Tank Systems Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulations Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulatory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compounds (a) Occasional or intermittent Hot emulsion hand slush, spray emulsion in single stage, vapor slush degrease (b) Boiling alkaline blow off, hand wipe Hot emulsion hand slush, spray emulsion in single stage, hot rinse, hand wipe Hot alkaline soak, hot rinse (hand wipe, if possible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... water rinse. A properly cleaned metal surface optimizes the performance of a coating that is subsequently applied by conversion coating, electroplating, painting, or other operations. The main chemical methods of soil removal by an alkaline cleaner are saponification, displacement, emulsification...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in single stage, hot rinse, hand wipe Hot alkaline soak, hot rinse (hand wipe, if possible), electrolytic alkaline, cold water rinse Continuous high production Conveyorized spray emulsion washer Alkaline soak, hot rinse, alkaline spray, hot rinse Alkaline or acid (d) soak, hot rinse, alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... , p 883 – 897 Inhibitors Antifoaming Agents Foaming Agents Wipe on/Wipe off Immersion Systems Electrolytic Acid Cleaning Tanks Rinse Tanks Spray Systems Heating Equipment Drying Acid Attack and Sludge Formation Handling and Conveying Wipe on/Wipe off Spray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... alkaline etching when smut removal is a problem. Acid etching solutions, especially those containing fluorides, are excellent smut and scale removers. After acid etching and thorough rinsing, the work is ready for further processing ( Fig. 2 ). In 2006, an alternative to traditional caustic and acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... components of solutions that form conversion coatings on aluminum. However, environmental regulations often make the handling of chromate-containing rinses a high-cost operation. Two types of technology address this problem. One is a dried-in-place chromate coating system, which eliminates the need...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... molybdenum ( Ref 1 ). Grinding wheels and papers should employ aluminum oxide or silicon carbide media. Emery paper is ineffective in grinding molybdenum and tungsten. The last step has been modified to use distilled water after the flowing tap water rinse and then dried with forced hot air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 370–390 700–730 Sodium hydroxide … Quench 15–30 s Not heated Not heated Water … Neutralizing rinse 1–3 min RT to 60 RT to 140 Sulfuric acid 2–10 Brightening pickle 5–15 min 54–60 130–140 Hydrofluoric acid Nitric acid 2–4 15–20 Rinse 15–30 s Not heated Not heated Water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... etching and the formation of a loose smut difficult to remove by rinsing. (b) Solutions containing silicates may be more difficult to rinse than nonsilicated cleaners. (c) Usually an alkyl sulfonate, alkyl aryl ether alcohol, and/or sodium resinate Abstract Abstract Zinc and zinc alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Surfactants Alkaline Cleaner Composition Cleaning Mechanisms Rinsing Method of Application Operating Conditions Testing and Control of Cleaners Equipment for Alkaline Cleaners Safety and Environmental Concerns Saponification Displacement Dispersion and Emulsification Metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cleaning Alkali, g/L (oz/gal) 53 (6) 106 (12) 70 (8) Temperature, °C (°F) 82 (180) 82 (180) 82 (180) Time, min 2–3 5 3–5 Rinsing Temperature Ambient Ambient Ambient Time, min 1 4 3 1 2 Electrolytic cleaning Alkali, g/L (oz/gal) 70 (8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... clean, emulsion clean (c) 1 Assembly, storage Automobile wheel assembly, 0.103 m 2 (160 in. 2 ) Drawing compound, chips Clean, no rinse 1 Assembly, storage Brass valves Machining oil Clean, blow off 2 Assembly, storage Cast iron motor blocks Machining oil, chips Clean, no rinse 2...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Water rinse Dip in 10% fluoboric acid (Hydrochloric or sulfuric acid should not be used because they can precipitate insoluble lead sulfate or chloride on the work in the event of poor rinsing) Water rinse Lead plate Rinse Lead can be plated on steel from fluosilicate and sulfamate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...% sulfuric acid 38–60 100–140 … Cold water rinse tank Wood … … … 380 L/h (100 gal/h) Hot water rinse tank Wood … 54–71 130–160 38 L/h (10 gal/h) (a) All tanks measure 1.1 by 0.9 by 21 m (3.5 by 3 by 70 ft) and hold 6738 L (1780 gal) for a 0.6 m (2 ft) depth of solution. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...; unload, rinse, separate parts from medium; tumble-dry parts in sawdust for 4 min. (b) Rubber-lined steel, double-compartment drum; each component 740 mm (29 in.) long, 915 mm (36 in.) in diameter. Processing cycle: load deburring compartment with parts, compound (2 kg or 5 lb of burnishing soap...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for microscopic examination Etchant Procedure Comments Picral: 4–5 g picric acid, 100 mL alcohol (a) (95% grade) Immerse 20 s or more if necessary. Rinse thoroughly in alcohol and dry. Shows general structure, grain contrast, and coloration. Etches grain boundaries where carbide is present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... bath descaling is accomplished by a series of cycles through the salt, a water rinse, and a sulfuric acid bath to remove scale before final pickling. Metal removal by a chemical bath of nitric-hydrofluoric acid is used most commonly, although other baths have been used. The usual bath for zirconium...