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retained oxide dissociation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... displacement/interatomic bonding, dissociation of retained oxides, and decomposition of the interfacial structure. It explains the processes that can be characterized as having two stages: heating and forging. The article also includes a table that illustrates weld strengths as a function of annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Carbonitrided Steels Surface/Internal Oxidation Retained Austenite Carbides Microcracks Microstructural Alterations from Contact Fatigue Nitrided Case Structure Specimen Preparation Sectioning Mounting Grinding and Polishing Techniques Etching Electron Microscopy Case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... a chemical bond is broken. A covalent bond may break in either of two ways: the atoms previously joined by the bond share the electrons (homolytic dissociation), or the more electronegative of the atoms retains the electrons (heterolytic dissociation) ( Ref 6 ). These two types of dissociations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., 1.4–1.65 mm (0.055–0.065 in.). Source: Ref 14 Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the low-pressure carburizing and high-pressure gas quenching process Fig. 4 Dissociation reactions during acetylene pyrolysis. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 1 Example of a carbon profile after case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... previously joined by the bond share the electrons (homolytic dissociation), or the more electronegative of the atoms retains the electrons (heterolytic dissociation) ( Ref 6 ). These two types of dissociations are: Homolytic   dissociation   A : B → A + B Heterolytic   dissociation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... for various alloys Steel Cycle Effective case depth at 50 HRC Maximum white layer thickness Minimum hardness at surface, Rockwell 15 N Core hardness, HRC mm in. mm in. Nitralloy 135M 10 h at 525 °C (975 °F), 28% dissociation, 50 h at 550 °C (1025 °F), 84% dissociation 0.457 0.018...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (NaCN), sodium cyanate (NaCNO) Strongly reducing Air cool 525–565 975–1050 … Regenerated cyanate-carbonate Type A: Potassium cyanate (KCNO), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ); Type B: Potassium cyanate (KCNO), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ), 1–10 ppm, sulfur (S) Mildly oxidizing Water, oil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... be derived from hydrogen storage vessel, dissociated ammonia, endothermic gas, or dissociated methanol. (c) If slightly oxidizing atmosphere is required, water or a small amount of air is introduced along with nitrogen in zone 2 of the water-cooled section at a selected location(s). Prime...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in a high vacuum atmosphere system Fig. 2 Torch-brazed assembly of a stainless steel tube and a pure nickel tube Fig. 3 Retainer assembly furnace brazed with BAg-13 filler metal Furnace brazing in dry hydrogen Furnace Continuous conveyor (a) Fixtures None Furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... suppressors ( Fig. 2 ) circumvented these problems. Amperometric electrochemical detection can be used to determine some ions that are separated on ion exchange columns but are too weakly dissociated to be detected by measuring their conductivity. The method is based on the measurement of current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., ferritic nitrocarburizing and austenitic nitrocarburizing. The article includes a discussion on the difficulties in specimen cleaning, importance of furnace purge, uses of pre and post oxidation, depassivation, or activation, and requirements for perfect nucleation in nitriding process. In nitriding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., it retains a larger portion of these properties during and after exposure to elevated temperatures than any other copper alloy. The properties of ODS copper can be modified to meet a wide range of design requirements by varying the aluminum oxide content and/or the amount of cold work. Figure 7 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... to density of 6.3 g/cm 3 , then sintered for 30 min at 1120 °C (2050 °F) in dissociated ammonia. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 6 Equilibrium ratios at various temperatures for oxidation-reduction and decarburization-carburization reactions. Equilibrium reactions: R, reducing; C, carburizing; O, oxidizing; D...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Pratt & Whitney Fig. 2 Percent of room-temperature strength retained after elevated-temperature exposure of Al-Fe-Ce alloys Fig. 1 Crack velocity versus stress intensity factor for P/M alloys Al-9052, 7090, and 7091, as well as conventional alloy 7075. All alloys were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...) in dissociated ammonia; N2: nitrogen alloyed, high strength, medium elongation, sintered at 1290 °C (2350 °F) in dissociated ammonia; H: low carbon, lower strength, high elongation, sintered at 1150 °C (2100 °F) in 100% hydrogen; L: low carbon, lower strength, highest elongation, sintered at 1290 °C (2350 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... intergranular oxidation can be controlled but is unavoidable. Low-pressure (vacuum) carburizing Intergranular oxidation eliminated Capital equipment costs typically highest of all methods Reduced energy consumption when compared to gas carburizing. No generators required; power used only when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for 10–15 s; heat treated steels: 6–7 s Concentrated picral: picric acid in methyl alcohol; some undissolved crystals remain in the container bottom For higher carbon-containing materials to develop good contrast with carbides, pearlite, other eutectoid products, martensite, and retained austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... are possible as sintering temperatures increase above 1120 °C (2050 °F). Rounding of the porosity results in increased strengths, especially impact strength. Higher diffusion rates also increase the strength and hardenability of admixed powder compositions. The greater oxide reduction that occurs at higher...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...; 11, dust filter; 12, heated rare earth copper oxide; 13, Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 desiccant; 14, silica gel column; 15, thermal conductive detector/readout; 16, flow rotameter Fig. 5 Insert gas fusion system for detecting nitrogen and oxygen. 1, Helium supply; 2, two-stage pressure regulator; 3, NaOH...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... sensitive (higher Df × L product), and safer to use than high-temperature flames. Automated flame lighting and extinguishing systems enhance safety. The higher temperature, fuel-rich nitrous oxide/acetylene flame is used to enhance the extent of dissociation of refractory compounds...