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retained austenite transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... , Acta Mater. , Vol 52 , 2004 , p 2765 10.1016/j.actamat.2004.02.044 30. Bhattacharyya T. , Singh S.B. , Das S. , Haldar A. , and Bhattacharjee D. , Mater. Sci. Eng. A , Vol 528 , 2011 , p 2394 Mechanical Properties Retained Austenite Transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... in Table 5 . In that table the HTS is simplified to the phase mixtures austenite, martensite, bainite, retained austenite, tempered martensite, and tempered bainite. This simplification is necessary to obtain the necessary material data. Subordinated transformations of carbides are neglected in this case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... stress profile), but the inherent layer of retained austenite developed at the case and core interface prohibits considering this alloy for use in many bearing applications ( Fig. 33 ). Any transformation of the retained austenite region could cause unwanted dimensional changes in the bearing component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005946
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.... The main purpose of cryogenic treating tool steels (to −75 °C, or −100 °F, or lower) is to transform retained austenite in the unfinished tool and thus to provide dimensional stability in subsequent finishing operations. However, it is pointed out in the technological literature that improvement in tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... (orthorhombic, Fe 2 C); earlier studies identified the carbides as ε (hexagonal, Fe 2.4 C). 200 to 350 390 to 660 Transformation of retained austenite to ferrite and cementite (T2) Associated with tempered-martensite embrittlement in low- and medium-carbon steels 250 to 700 480 to 1290 Formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... transformation of retained austenite in the plastic zone ahead of the crack introduces compressive stresses ( Ref 38 , 39 ). The fatigue crack then propagates in a transgranular mode, and when the stable crack reaches critical size, as defined by the fracture toughness, unstable fracture occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in a dual-phase steel after grinding with new and worn grinding papers. The two bars for chemical polish represent the true percentage of retained austenite in the specimen. The lower percentages, from grinding with worn papers, indicate that much of the retained austenite transformed to martensite due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...). 200 to 350 390 to 660 Transformation of retained austenite to ferrite and cementite (T 2 ) Associated with tempered-martensite embrittlement in low- and medium-carbon steels 250 to 700 480 to 1290 Formation of ferrite and cementite; eventual development of well-spheroidized carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... residual stress retained austenite shot peening tempering time-temperature-transformation diagrams STRESSES EXISTING within a body after the original cause of the stresses is removed are known as residual stresses (also referred to as locked-in stresses ), and are a common cause of distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...- (A) and medium-sized (B) gears. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 9 Retained austenite distribution and associated residual-stress distribution in a carburized 8620-grade steel sample. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 11 Reduction in peak residual stresses due to tempering after carburizing and hardening. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... (formerly EX24 steel) (0.89Mn-0.55Cr-0.24Mo). Light micrograph. Source: Ref 14 The white areas of Fig. 5 are regions of austenite that have not transformed. This austenite is referred to as retained austenite and is present because of the high stability of high-carbon austenite. Increasing...
Book Chapter

By G.R. Speich
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., some retained austenite remains in the form of very small particles ( Fig. 9 ). This austenite is stable upon cooling to room temperature or subzero temperatures but transforms upon plastic straining ( Fig. 10 ). Although the transformation of austenite after intercritical annealing is similar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microstructure phase transformations quenching quench-process design residual stress retained austenite steel stress tempering HEAT TREATING—of all the various steel processing methods—has the greatest overall impact on control of microstructure, properties, residual stresses, and dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of manganese (AISI 1340, 1536, 4140H, 4340) Quench sensitivity Cracking and distortion increase as C eq is increased . Alloy is crack sensitive if C eq > 0.52 . Increases in amount of retained austenite also increase tendency toward cracking and distortion . Transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and Transformation of Retained Austenite,” Publication M-399E, Climax Molybdenum Company , 1984 6. Dodd J. and Parks J. L. , “Factors Affecting the Production and Performance of Thick Section High Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy Iron Castings,” Climax Molybdenum Company , Metals Forum, 1980 , 3:3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... retained austenite and should be restricted to combined levels of 1.2% maximum; manganese behaves similarly and should be restricted to 1.0% maximum Results of linear regression analysis of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) data Table 6 Results of linear regression analysis of continuous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... as a continuous process from start (M s ) to finish (M f ) through the martensite formation range. Except in a few highly alloyed steels, martensite starts to form at well above room temperature. In many instances, transformation essentially is complete at room temperature. Retained austenite tends to be present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... sufficiently carbon-saturated martensite, and the austenite could transform under high mechanical stresses, which would change the tool dimensions. Especially in high-precision cold working operations, this is not acceptable, and, as a consequence, the retained austenite must be fully transformed to martensite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... ( Fig. 2 ). During cooling, when the steel reaches the M f temperature, the martensitic transformation ceases and any remaining γ is referred to as retained austenite. Fig. 1 Crystal structures. (a) Austenite (fcc). (b) Ferrite (bcc). (c) Martensite (bct) Fig. 2 Steel expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of 1150 °C (2100 °F) By tempering first at 480 °C (900 °F) an initial contraction is obtained. Subsequent retempering at increasing temperatures decreases the magnitude of this contraction because conditioning of the retained austenite and transformation to martensite occurs in successive increments...