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retained austenite

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... residual stress retained austenite shot peening tempering time-temperature-transformation diagrams STRESSES EXISTING within a body after the original cause of the stresses is removed are known as residual stresses (also referred to as locked-in stresses ), and are a common cause of distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article also describes the generation of thermal, transformation, and hardening residual stresses. bearing steel case hardening distortion elastic plastic deformation heat treatment linear elastic deformation phase transformation quenching residual stress retained austenite steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... explains the practices employed and equipment used in the cold treatment of steel. It also presents the results of using cryogenic treatment to enhance steel properties. cold and cryogenic treatment hardening retained austenite steel stress relief COLD TREATNG OF STEEL is widely accepted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... parameters associated with resistance spot welding, laser welding, and metal active gas welding. It also provides useful information of retained austenite volume fraction measured by x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. The article also examines microstructure evolution during tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... atmosphere in batch and continuous furnaces. It discusses the most important considerations in the selection of carbonitriding temperature. The article also describes the processing factors for minimizing retained austenite in the carbonitrided case. Hardness testing and carbonitriding of powder metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... microstructure. Such austenite is referred to as retained austenite, resulting from incomplete transformation/decomposition during cooling from a previous processing step or sequence of steps. Fig. 1 Iron-carbon binary phase diagram, where solid lines indicate the metastable Fe-Fe 3 C diagram and dashed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... materials, the austenite is generally recrystallized prior to transformation. Nevertheless, even plain carbon steels can contain some of the retained rolling fiber prior to transformation and therefore the transformed copper and transformed Br components after transformation, particularly when finish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and titanium alloys. The TMP techniques include retained-strain processing, dual-microstructure processing, and dual-alloy processing. The article also describes the TMP of alpha-beta titanium alloys, including fine-grain processing, hybrid-structure processing, dual-microstructure processing, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... toughness, and the high end for maximum yield strength. Tempering in the range of 370 to 565 °C (700 to 1050 °F) is not recommended because it results in low and erratic impact properties and poor resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion. (e) For minimum retained austenite and maximum dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... first type uses atmosphere austenitizing followed by salt quench and the second type employs austenitizing salt baths with rapid transfer to the quench salt. The article provides a detailed account on the construction, advantages and disadvantages, and limitations of isothermal quenching furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Hardenability refers to the ability of steel to obtain satisfactory hardening to some desired depth when cooled under prescribed conditions. It is governed almost entirely by the chemical composition (carbon and alloy content) at the austenitizing temperature and the austenite grain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... a few others, however, that deserve mention. Figure 20 , for example, shows the microstructure of a dual-phase sheet steel that was austenitized in the two-phase region and then slowly cooled. The white matrix phase is ferrite, the small outlined white particles are retained austenite, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... retained austenite levels. The inverse relationship between carbon content and M s temperature results in suppression of the M s temperature at the surface of a carburized component. Fig. 2 Effect of carbon content in iron-carbon alloys on the martensite start (M s ) temperature, the relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... result in excessive retained austenite or free carbides. These two microstructural elements can have adverse effects on the distribution of residual stress in the case-hardened part. Consequently, a high carbon potential may be suitable for short carburizing times but not for prolonged carburizing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... etch. 320×. Courtesy of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University Fig. 4 Microstructure of an alloy white cast iron. White constituent is cementite and the darker constituent is martensite with some retained austenite. 4% picral etch. 250×. Courtesy of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... a workpiece is explained, with emphasis on the skin effect. The article discusses typical procedures for induction hardening of steel, namely, austenitizing and quenching to form martensite either on the surface (case hardening) or through the entire section (through hardening). It briefly describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are extremely large. Tempering practices for A and D steels parallel those described for O steels in the preceding section. Tempering is usually begun when the work reaches a temperature of about 50 to 65 °C (120 to 150 °F). However, these steels retain some austenite at this temperature range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... retained austenite) to 100% lamellar carbide of variable interlamellar spacing. All of these prior transformation products transform to austenite rather easily during reheating for hardening ( Ref 8 ). During cooling, however, the undissolved carbides will nucleate pearlite prematurely and act to reduce...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... recommended temperatures for normalizing and austenitizing, it provides information on mechanism, cooling media, principal variables, process procedures, and applications of heat treating. In addition, the article gives a short note on the cold and cryogenic treatment of steel. age hardening annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... nitrocarburizing and austenitic nitrocarburizing. The article includes a discussion on the difficulties in specimen cleaning, importance of furnace purge, uses of pre and post oxidation, depassivation, or activation, and requirements for perfect nucleation in nitriding process. In nitriding, the successful...