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retained austenite

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and the formation and causes of microcracks. The article discusses the effects of alloying elements on hardenability, the effects of excessive retained austenite and massive carbides on fatigue resistance, the effects of residual stresses and internal oxidation on fatigue performance of carburized steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... the characteristics of carburized steels that affect wear resistance, including hardness, microstructure, retained austenite, and carbides. It also describes the processing considerations for carburization of titanium. carburization wear resistance steel abrasive wear adhesive wear carburized steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-surface case microstructure of direct-quenched carburized steel. Martensite plates etch dark and retained austenite appears white. Gas-carburized AISI 8719 steel (1.06% Mn, 0.52% Cr, 0.5% Ni, 0.17% Mo). Light micrograph, nital etch Fig. 2 Typical near-surface case microstructure of carburized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the parameters associated with resistance spot welding, laser welding, and metal active gas welding. It also provides useful information of retained austenite volume fraction measured by x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. The article also examines microstructure evolution during tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... atmosphere in batch and continuous furnaces. It discusses the most important considerations in the selection of carbonitriding temperature. The article also describes the processing factors for minimizing retained austenite in the carbonitrided case. Hardness testing and carbonitriding of powder metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... residual stress retained austenite shot peening tempering time-temperature-transformation diagrams STRESSES EXISTING within a body after the original cause of the stresses is removed are known as residual stresses (also referred to as locked-in stresses ), and are a common cause of distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.... Stabilizing treatments, namely, stabilizing by tempering and stabilizing by cold treatment are used to minimize dimensional changes that occur following heat treatment. chemical composition dimensional change distortion heat treatment machining martempering retained austenite tool steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... explains the practices employed and equipment used in the cold treatment of steel. It also presents the results of using cryogenic treatment to enhance steel properties. cold and cryogenic treatment hardening retained austenite steel stress relief COLD TREATNG OF STEEL is widely accepted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... examination are similar to those used for carbon, alloy, and tool steels. Cutting and grinding must be carefully executed to minimize deformation because the austenitic grades work harden readily. The high-hardness martensitic grades that contain substantial undissolved chromium carbide are difficult...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in./in. for eutectoid compositions. This illustrates the effect of carbon structure and steel transformation on residual stresses and distortion leading to dimensional changes. Fig. 5 Carbon content versus lattice parameters of (retained) austenite and martensite at room temperature. a at the top of the graph...
Book Chapter

By G.R. Speich
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... , “Influence of Retained Austenite on the Bending Formability of Steel Sheet Containing Retained Austenite, ”Paper presented at the 114th Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Meeting, Tokyo, 1987 18. Matsumara M. , Sakuma Y. , and Takechi H. , Enhancement of Elongation by Retained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are direct quenched, while more-alloy grades are reheat quenched. The amount and morphology of martensite in the case depends on the carbon content and the transformation kinetics. Other microstructural constituents (e.g., retained austenite, nonmartensitic transformation products, carbides, inclusions) also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
.../strength Microstructural control: Bainite Ferrite Martensite Pearlite Retained austenite Second-phase particles Phase stability Passivity Residual stresses/surface compression Toughness Uniformity of properties Thus, heat treatment selection depends on its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... A. , “Study of the Hardness of the Martensitic Structures in High-Chromium Ferrous Alloys and the Control and Transformation of Retained Austenite,” Publication M-399E, Climax Molybdenum Company , 1984 6. Dodd J. and Parks J. L. , “Factors Affecting the Production and Performance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... A. , “Study of the Hardness of the Martensitic Structures in High-Chromium Ferrous Alloys and the Control and Transformation of Retained Austenite,” Publication M-399E, Climax Molybdenum Company , 1984 5. Dodd J. and Parks J. L. , “Factors Affecting the Production and Performance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... The article also describes the generation of thermal, transformation, and hardening residual stresses. bearing steel case hardening distortion elastic plastic deformation heat treatment linear elastic deformation phase transformation quenching residual stress retained austenite steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... . Alloy is crack sensitive if C eq > 0.52 . Increases in amount of retained austenite also increase tendency toward cracking and distortion . Transformation temperature (martensite start temperature) Part geometry Long parts with small cross sections or thin parts with large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... , Sadaoka Y. , Ito S. , and Tsushima N. , The Effect of Retained Austenite on the Rolling Fatigue of Carburized Steels , in Proceedings of the Twelfth Japanese Congress on Materials Research ( Kyoto, Japan ), Society of Materials Science , 1969 3. Nakamura K. , Mihara K...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... ). The precipitation behavior and kinetics of AlN and Nb(CN) have been extensively studied, and the optimum niobium and aluminum contents were found to be 0.02 and 0.03%, respectively ( Ref 22 ). It was found that both AlN and Nb(CN) precipitates form during austenitization, whereas only Nb(CN) precipitates form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of retained austenite. Temperature and time also are interdependent variables in the tempering process. Within limits, lowering temperature and increasing time can usually produce the same result as raising temperature and decreasing time. However, minor temperature changes have a far greater effect than...